DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Reliability analysis of a mechanically stabilized earth wall using the surface response methodology optimized by a genetic algorithm

  • Hamrouni, Adam (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Skikda & InfraRES Laboratory, Univ. of Souk-Ahras) ;
  • Dias, Daniel (Hefei University of Technology, School of Automotive and Transportation Engineering) ;
  • Sbartai, Badreddine (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Badji Mokhtar-Annaba & LMGHU Laboratory, Univ. of Skikda)
  • Received : 2016.06.18
  • Accepted : 2017.12.27
  • Published : 2018.07.20

Abstract

A probabilistic study of a reinforced earth wall in a frictional soil using the surface response methodology (RSM) is presented. A deterministic model based on numerical simulations is used (Abdelouhab et al. 2011, 2012b) and the serviceability limit state (SLS) is considered in the analysis. The model computes the maximum horizontal displacement of the wall. The response surface methodology is utilized for the assessment of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and is optimized by the use of a genetic algorithm. The soil friction angle and the unit weight are considered as random variables while studying the SLS. The assumption of non-normal distribution for the random variables has an important effect on the reliability index for the practical range of values of the wall horizontal displacement.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

References

  1. AASHTO, (2014), LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
  2. Abdelouhab, A., Dias, D. and Freitag, N. (2012b), "Modelisation physique et analytique de renforcements extensibles e Developpement d'une nouvelle armature", Eur. J. Environ. Civ. Eng., 16(10), 1115-1142. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2012.666904
  3. Abdelouhab, A., Dias, D. and Freitag, N., (2010), "Reinforced earth walls: Evaluation of the soilgeosynthetic strap interaction by pullout tests", Geotext. Geomembr., 28(1), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2009.09.018
  4. Abdelouhab, A., Dias, D. and Freitag, N., (2011), "Numerical analysis of the behavior of mechanically stabilized earth walls reinforced with different types of strips", Geotext. Geomembr., 29(2), 116-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2010.10.011
  5. Abdelouhab, A., Dias, D. and Freitag, N., (2012a), "Modelisation numerique bidimensionnelle de murs en Terre Armee", Eur. J. Environ. Civ. Eng., 16(10), 1143-1167. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2012.666908
  6. Al Hattamleh, O. and Muhunthan, B. (2006), "Numerical procedures for deformation calculations in the reinforced soil walls", Geotext. Geomembr., 24(1), 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2005.07.001
  7. Allen, T.M., Bathurst, R.J. and Berg, R.R., (2002), "Global level of safety and performance of geosynthetic walls: A historical perspective", Geosynth., 9(5-6), 395-450. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.9.0224
  8. Baecher, G.B. and Christian, J.T. (2003), Reliability and Statistics in Geotechnical Engineering, Wiley.
  9. Bathurst, R.J., Allen, T.M. and Walters, D.L. (2005), "Reinforcement loads in geosynthetic walls and the case for a new working stress design method", Geotext. Geomembr., 23(4), 287-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2005.01.002
  10. Bauer, J. and Pula, W. (2000), "Reliability with respect to settlement limit-states of shallow foundations on linearlydeformable subsoil", Comput. Geotech., 26(1), 281-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-352X(99)00043-9
  11. Bergado, D.T. and Teerawattanasuk, C. (2008), "2D and 3D numerical simulations of reinforced embankments on soft ground", Geotext. Geomembr., 26(1), 39-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2007.03.003
  12. Bouacha, K., Yallese, M.A., Khamel, S. and Belhadi, S. (2014), "Analysis and optimization of hard turning operation using cubic boron nitride tool", J. Refract. Metal. Hard Mater., 45, 160-178 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2014.04.014
  13. Chalermyanont, T. and Benson, C.H. (2004), "Reliability-based design for internal stability of mechanically stabilized earth walls", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 130(2), 163-173. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:2(163)
  14. Cherubini, C., Giasi, I. and Rethati, L. (1993), The Coefficient of Variation of Some Geotechnical Parameters, in Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands,179-183.
  15. Christian, J.T. and Baecher, G.B. (2004), Reliability and Statistics in Geotechnical Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A.
  16. Chun, B.S., Kim, K.M. and Min, D.K. (2004), "A study on reliability analysis for reinforced earth retaining walls", Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Geotechnical Conference on Geosynthetics, Seoul, Korea, June.
  17. Ditlevsen, O. (1981), Uncertainty Modeling: With Applications to Multidimensional Civil Engineering Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A.
  18. Duncan, J.M. (2000), "Factors of safety and reliability in geotechnical engineering", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 126(4), 307-316. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2000)126:4(307)
  19. Elias, V., Christopher, B. and Berg, R.R. (2001), Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design and Construction Guidelines, FHWA-NHI-00-043, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
  20. Fenton, G.A. and Griffiths, D.V. (2003), "Bearing capacity prediction of spatially random C-$\varphi$ soils", Can. Geotech. J., 40(1), 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1139/t02-086
  21. Flavigny, E., Desrues, J. and Palayer, B. (1990), "Note Technique: Le sable d'Hostun RF", Rev. Franc. Geotech., 53, 67-70.
  22. Gay, O. (2000), "Modelisation physique et numerique de l'action d'un glissement lent sur des fondations d'ouvrages d'art ", Ph.D. Dissertation, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France.
  23. Griffiths, D.V. and Fenton, G.A. (2001), "Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: The undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited", Geotechnique, 51(4), 351-359. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2001.51.4.351
  24. Griffiths, D.V., Fenton, G.A. and Manoharan, N. (2002), "Bearing capacity of rough rigid strip footing on cohesive soil: Probabilistic study", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 128(9), 743-755. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2002)128:9(743)
  25. GuhaRay, A. and Baidya, D.K. (2014), "Partial safety factors for retaining walls and slopes: A reliability based approach", Geomech. Eng., 6(2), 99-115 https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2014.6.2.099
  26. Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. (2000), Probability, Reliability, and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design, Wiley, New York, U.S.A.
  27. Hamrouni, A., Dias, D. and Sbartai, B. (2017a), "Probabilistic analysis of a piled earth platform under a concrete floor slab", Soil. Found., 57(5), 828-839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2017.08.012
  28. Hamrouni, A., Dias, D. and Sbartai, B. (2017b), "Reliability analysis of shallow tunnels using the response surface methodology", Undergr. Sp., 2(4), 246-258 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.undsp.2017.11.003
  29. Hamrouni, A., Sbartai, B. and Dias, D. (2018), "Probability study of the ultimate seismic bearing capacity of strip foundations", J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng., In press.
  30. Hasofer, A.M. and Lind, N.C. (1974), "Exact and invariant second moment code format", J. Eng. Mech. Div., 100(1), 111-121.
  31. Hatami, K. and Bathurst, R.J. (2006), "Parametric analysis of reinforced soil walls with different backfill material properties", Proceedings of the NAGS' 2006 Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A.
  32. Huang, B., Bathurst, R.J. and Hatami, K., (2009), "Numerical study of reinforced soil segmental walls using three different constitutive soil models", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135 (10), 1486-1498. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000092
  33. Itasca Consulting Group. (2011), FLAC Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, User's Manual, Itasca Consulting Group, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.
  34. Ji, J. and Liao, H.J. (2014), "Sensitivity-based reliability analysis of earth slopes using finite element method", Geomech. Eng., 6(6), 545-560. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2014.6.6.545
  35. Kazimierowicz-Frankowska, K. (2005), "A case study of a geosynthetic reinforced wall with wrap-around facing", Geotext. Geomembr., 23(1), 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2004.05.001
  36. Koerner, R.M. and Soong, T.Y. (2001). "Geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining walls", Geotext. Geomembr., 19(6), 359-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-1144(01)00012-7
  37. Kulhawy, F.H. and Phoon, K.K. (2002), "Observations on geotechnical reliability-based design development in North America", Proceedings of the International Workshop on Foundation Design Codes and Soil Investigation in View of International Harmonization and Performance based Design, Tokyo, Japan, April.
  38. Lin, B.H., Yu, Y., Bathurst, R.J. and Liu, C.N. (2016), "Deterministic and probabilistic prediction of facing deformations of geosynthetic-reinforced MSE walls using a response surface approach", Geotext. Geomembr., 44(6), 816-823.
  39. Ling, H.I. and Liu, H. (2009), "Deformation analysis of reinforced soil-simplistic versus sophisticated finite element analyses", Acta Geotechnica, 4, 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-009-0091-6
  40. Low, B.K. (2005), "Reliability-based design applied to retaining walls", Geotechnique, 55(1), 63-75. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2005.55.1.63
  41. Low, B.K. (2014), "FORM, SORM, and spatial modeling in geotechnical engineering", Struct. Safe., 49, 56-64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2013.08.008
  42. Low, B.K. and Tang, W.H. (2004), "Reliability analysis using objectoriented constrained optimization", Struct. Safe., 26(1), 69-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4730(03)00023-7
  43. Miyata, Y. and Bathurst, R.J. (2012), "Reliability analysis of soilgeogrid pullout models in Japan", Soil. Found., 52(4), 620-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2012.07.004
  44. Mollon, G., Dias, D. and Soubra, A.H. (2009), "Probabilistic analysis of circular tunnels in homogeneous soils using response surface methodology", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135(9), 1314-1325 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000060
  45. Pan, Q. and Dias, D. (2017a), "An efficient reliability method combining adaptive support vector machine and Monte Carlo simulation", Struct. Safe., 67, 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2017.04.006
  46. Pan, Q. and Dias, D. (2017b), "Probabilistic evaluation of tunnel face stability in spatially random soils using sparse polynomial chaos expansion with global sensitivity analysis", Acta Geotechnica, 12(6), 1415-1429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-017-0541-5
  47. Pan, Q., Jiang, Y.J. and Dias, D. (2017c), "Probabilistic stability analysis of a three-dimensional rock slope characterized by the Hoek-Brown failure criterion", J. Comput. Civ. Eng., 31(5), 04017046. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000692
  48. Phoon, K.K. and Kulhawy, F.H. (1999), "Evaluation of geotechnical property variability", Can. Geotech. J., 36(4), 625-639. https://doi.org/10.1139/t99-039
  49. Quang, T.S., Hassen, G. and De Buhan, P. (2008), "Modelisation multiphasique appliquee a l'analyse des tabilites d'ouvrage en sols renforces avec prise en compte d'une condition d'adherence sol-armatures", Stud. Geotech. Mech., 30(1-2).
  50. Rackwitz, R. and Fiessler, B. (1978), "Structural reliability under combined random load sequences", Comput. Struct., 9(5), 484-494.
  51. Sayed, S., Dodagoudar, G.R. and Rajagopal, K. (2008), "Reliability analysis of reinforced soil walls under static and seismic forces", Geosynth., 15(4), 246-257. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2008.15.4.246
  52. Sayed, S., Dodagoudar, G.R. and Rajagopal, K. (2010), "Finite element reliability analysis of reinforced retaining walls", Geomech. Geoeng., 5(3), 187-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/17486020903576788
  53. Schlosser, F. and Elias, V. (1978), "Friction in reinforced Earth", Proceedings of the Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., April.
  54. Sia, A.H.I. and Dixon, N. (2008), "Deterministic and reliabilitybased design: Veneer cover soil stability", Geosynth., 15(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2008.15.1.1
  55. Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2005), "Design and behaviour of a geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall and bridge abutment on a yielding foundation", Geotext. Geomembr., 23(3), 235-260.
  56. Tandjiria, V., Teh, C.I. and Low, B.K. (2000), "Reliability analysis of laterally loaded piles using response surface methods", Struct. Safe., 22(4), 335-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4730(00)00019-9
  57. Tang, K.S., Man, K.F., Kwong, S. and He, Q. (1996), "Genetic algorithms and their applications", IEEE Signal Proc. Mag., 13(6), 22-37. https://doi.org/10.1109/79.543973
  58. Yoo, C. (2004), "Performance of a 6-year-old geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall", Geotext. Geomembr., 22(5), 377-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2003.12.001
  59. Yoo, C. and Jung, H.Y. (2006), "Case history of geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall failure", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 132(12), 1538-1548. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:12(1538)
  60. Yoo, C. and Song, A.R. (2006), "Effect of foundation yielding on performance of two-tier geosynthetic-reinforced segmental retaining walls: A numerical investigation", Geosynth., 13(5), 181-194. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2006.13.5.181
  61. Youssef Abdel Massih, D.S. and Soubra, A.H. (2008), "Reliability based analysis of strip footings using response surface methodology", J. Geomech., 8(2), 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1532-3641(2008)8:2(134)
  62. Yu, Y. and Bathurst, R.J. (2017), "Probabilistic assessment of reinforced soil wall performance using response surface method", Geosynth., 24(5), 524-542. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgein.17.00019
  63. Yuan, J.X., Yang, Y., Tham, L.G., Lee, P.K.K. and Tsai, Y. (2003), "New approach to limit equilibrium and reliability analysis of soil nailed walls", J. Geomech., 3(2), 145-151. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1532-3641(2003)3:2(145)