Water Scarcity Assessment Using Green and Blue Water Concepts

그린워터 및 블루워터를 이용한 물부족 평가

  • Kim, Sung Eun (Graduate School, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Dong Kun (Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yang, Byung Sun (Interdisciplinary Program in Landscape Architecture, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jin, Yihua (Agricultural College of Yanbian University)
  • 김성은 (서울대학교 대학원) ;
  • 이동근 (서울대학교 조경지역시스템공학부) ;
  • 양병선 (서울대학교 협동과정 조경학) ;
  • 김예화 (연변대학교 농학원)
  • Received : 2017.11.30
  • Accepted : 2018.05.30
  • Published : 2018.06.30


With climate change and population growth, there are significant increases in water scarcity. There have been water security assessments to abate the gap between water demand and availability to support water resource management. However, most of the assessments are focusing on the water that flows through either on or below the land surface, failing to consider water that infiltrates and can be used by vegetation. This study presents water scarcity assessment accounting for Blue and Green water concept, and applied the method to Boryung region. Monthly streamflow, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were estimated by SWAT modeling, and each of them was used to analyze Blue and Green water scarcity. Blue and Green water scarcity had different aspect, and the result indicated the time when water scarcity is more likely to happen. The water scarcity assessment framework presented in this paper provides novel assessment method integrating hydrologic and ecosystem aspects, thereby improving the understanding of how water resources should be managed.


Water availability;Water security;Green water;Water footprint;SWAT;Climate change


Supported by : 환경부


  1. Acreman M, Dunbar MJ. 2004. Defining environmental river flow requirements - a review. Hydrology and Earth System Sceiences. 8(5): 861-876.
  2. Ahn SR, Park GA, Kim SJ. 2013. Assessment of Agricultural Water Supply Capacity Using MODSIM-DSS Coupled with SWAT. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers. 33(2): 507-519. [Korean Literature]
  3. Alcamo J, Henrich T, Rosch T. 2000. World Water in 2025 - Global modeling and scenario analysis for the World Commission on Water for the 21st Century. Kassel World Water Series. 2: 3-47.
  4. Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Muttiah RS, Williams JR. 1998. Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment park 1: Model development 1. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 34(1): 73-89.
  5. Calder IR. 2007. Forests and water-Ensuring forest benefits outweigh water costs. Forest Ecology and Management. 251(1-2): 110-120.
  6. Falkenmark M, Lundqvist J, Widstrand C. 1989. Macro-scale water scarcity requires micro-scale approaches. Natural Resources Forum. 13: 258-267.
  7. Falkenmark M. 1997. Society's interaction with the water cycle: a conceptual framework for a more holistic approach. Hydrological Sciences. 42: 451-466.
  8. Falkenmark M, Rockstrom J. 2006. The new blue and green water paradigm: breaking new ground for water resources planning and management. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 132(3): 129-132.
  9. Falkenmark M, Rockstrom J. 2010. Building water resilience in the face of global change: from a blue-only to a green-blue water approach to land-water management. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 136(6):606-610.
  10. Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK, Aldaya MM, Mekonnen MM. 2011. The Water Footprint Assessment Manual: Setting the Global Standard. Earthscan.
  11. Hwang TH, Kim BS, Kim HS, Seoh BH. 2006. The Estimation of Soil Moisture Index by SWAT Model and Drought Monitoring. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers. 26(4B): 345-354. [Korean Literature]
  12. Jung CM, Shin MJ, Kim YO. 2015. A Comparison Study of Runoff Projections for Yongdam Dam Watershed Using SWAT. Journal of Korea Water Resource Association. 48(6): 439-449. [Korean Literature]
  13. Kim CR, Kim YO, Seo SB, Choi SW. 2013. Water Balance Projection Using Climate Change Scenarios in the Korean Peninsula. Journal of Korea Water Resource Association. 46(8): 807-819. [Korean Literature]
  14. Kim KS, Jung JS. 2001. Evaluation of Water Supply Capacity for Boseong River Basin by Water Budget Analysis. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Technology. 2(1): 107-113. [Korean Literature]
  15. Lee DW, Jung J, Hong SJ, Han D, Joo HJ, Kim HS. 2017. Evaluation of Future Water Deficit for Anseong River Basin under Climate Change. Journal of Wetlands Research. 19(3): 345-352. [Korean Literature]
  16. Liu J, Yang H, Gosling SN, Kummu M, Florke M, Pfister S, Hanasaki N, Wada Y, Zang X, Zheng C, Alcamo J, Oki T. 2017. Water scarcity assessment in the past, present, and future. Earth's Futre. 5(6): 545-559.
  17. Ministry of Construction and Transportation, Korea Water Resources Corporation. 2010. Water Vision 2020.
  18. Mishra AK, Singh VP. 2010. A review of drought concepts. Journal of Hydrology. 391: 202-216.
  19. Nash JE, Sutcliffe JV. 1970. River flow forecasting through conceptual model: Part 1. A discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology. 10(3): 282-290.
  20. Palmer TN, Raisanen J. 2002. Quantifying the risk of extreme seasonal precipitation events in a changing climate. Nature. 415(6871): 512-514.
  21. Park JY, Lee MS, Lee YJ, Kim SJ. 2008. The analysis of future land use change impact on hydrology and water quality using SWAT model. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers. 28(2B): 187-197. [Korean Literature]
  22. Ramanarayanan TS, Williams JR, Dugas WA, Hauck LM, Mc Farland AMS. 1997. Using APEX to identify alternative practices for animal waste management. ASAE International Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, August 10-14.
  23. Richter BD, Davis MM, Apse C, Konrad C. 2012. A presumptive standard for environmental flow protection. River Research and Applications. 28: 1312-1321.
  24. Rodrigues DBB, Gupta HV, Mendiondo EM. 2014. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security. American Geophysical Union Publication. 7187-7205.
  25. Rockstrom J, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Hoff H, Rost S, Gerten D. 2009. Future water availability for global food production: The potential of green water for increasing resilience to global change. Water Resources Research. 45(7).
  26. Schuol J, Abbaspour KC, Srinivasan R, Yang, H. 2008. Estimation of freshwater availability in the West African sub-continent using the SWAT hydrologic model. Journal of Hydrology. 352: 30-49.
  27. Sullivan CA. 2002. Calculating a Water Poverty Index. World Development. 30(7): 1195-1210.
  28. Sullivan CA, Meigh JR, Giacomello AM. 2003. The water poverty index: Development and application at the community scale. National Resources Forum. 27: 189-199.
  29. Van Griensve A, Ndomba P, Yalew S, Kilonza F. 2012. Critical review of SWAT applications in the upper Nile basin countries. Hydrology and Earth System Science. 16(9): 3371-3381.
  30. Van Loon AF, Van Lanen HAJ. 2013. Making the distinction between water scarcity and drought using an observation-modeling 700 framework. Water Resources. 49: 1483-1502.
  31. Veettil AV, Mishra AK. 2016. Water security assessment using blue and green water footprint concepts. Journal of Hydrology: 542: 589-602.
  32. Won KJ, Sung JH, Chung ES. 2015. Parametric Assessment of Water Use Vulnerability of South Korea using SWAT model and TOPSIS. Journal of Korea Water Resource Association. 48(8): 647-657. [Korean Literature]
  33. Zeng Z, Liu J, Koeneman PH, Zarate E, Hoekstra AY. 2012. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 16: 2771-2781.