Comparison of Characteristics of Ketapang and Gallnut for Development of Environmentally Friendly Black Dye

친환경 검정색 염료 개발을 위한 Ketapang과 오배자의 특성 비교

  • Kang, Jae-Yong (Department of Cultural heritage and Conservation science, Pusan National University) ;
  • Lee, Jung-Eun (Korea Traditional Costume Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Sung-Yeon (Department of Plastic Arts, Pusan National University) ;
  • Park, Geun-Tae (Department of Nanoenergy Engineering, Pusan National University) ;
  • Park, Jang-Su (Department of Chemistry, Pusan National University)
  • 강재용 (부산대학교 문화유산보존과학전공) ;
  • 이정은 (부산대학교 한국전통복식연구소) ;
  • 김성연 (부산대학교 조형학과) ;
  • 박근태 (부산대학교 나노에너지공학과) ;
  • 박장수 (부산대학교 화학과)
  • Received : 2018.05.20
  • Accepted : 2018.06.27
  • Published : 2018.06.30


The purpose of this study was to develop environmentally friendly black dye by comparing Ketapang and Gallnut, that have been traditionally used as a black dye. As a result of FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis, Ketapang was characterized by condensed tannin, while Gallnut showed hydrolyzable tannin. Due to the dyeability characteristic analysis, the color fastness of the non-mordant dye was slightly lowered to grades 1-3. In the dry-cleaning fastness test, both non-mordant and iron mordant were excellent, in grade 4-5, and the daylight fastness was excellent grade 3-5 too. The $L^*$ values of Ketapang were 26.93 (pre-mordant) and 29.39 (post-mordant), which were higher than those of Gallnut, 41.90 (pre-mordant) and 43.02 (post-mordant), indicating that Ketapang was more easily colored as a black dye than Gallnut.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Xiao, J. S., Xie, B. J., Sun, Z. S., Xiao, D., 2012, Characterization of oligomeric procyanidins and identification of quercetin glucuronnide from lotus(nelum nucifera gaetn.) seedpod, J. Agri. and Food Chem., 60(11), 2825-2829.
  2. Yeo, Y. M., Shin, Y. S., 2017, Developing black color by natural dyeing for contemporary fashion : dyeing of silk fabrics, Textile Coloration and Finishing, 29(4), 276-283.
  3. Yeo, Y. M., Shin, Y. S., 2017, The dyeing properties and functionality of Water lily(Nymphaea tetragona) leaves extracts as a new natural dye resource(2):dyeing of silk and wool fibers, Textile Coloration and Finishing, 29(3), 171-179.
  4. Vadwala, Y., Kola, N., 2017, Natural dyes extracted from waste leaves of Terminalia Catappa locally known as Tropical Almond and its application on silk fabrics pretreated with ecofriendly and noneco-friendly mordants, Int. J. Res. Granthaalayah, 5(5). 125-137.
  5. Cho, K. R., 2004, Natural dyes and dyeing, Hyeongseol publisher, 194.
  6. Ha, Y. K., Lee, J. S., 2017, Natural dyeing of silk fabrics with the extract of Alnus firma tree branches, Fashion & Text. Res. J., 19(3), 337-343.
  7. Hidayat, J., Fatmahwaty, 2014, The art and sustainable aspects of natural dyeing in KANAWIDA hand drawn Batik(Green Batik), IPTEK, Journal of Proceeding Series, 1, 136-142.
  8. Kim, J. T., Park, G., Lee, G., Kang, K. H., Kim, J. K., 2014, Isolation and characterization of dye-degrading microorganisms for treatment of chromaticity contained in industrial dyeing wastewater, J. Environ. Sci. Int. 23(1), 129-142.
  9. Lee, B., 2014, Coloring textiles black from 1700 to 1900, Doctor Thesis, Seoul University, Seoul, Korea.
  10. Lee, J., Lee, E. J., A Study on the black color expression of silk fabrics with Juglans mandshurica Cortex extract, J. Fash. Bus. 21(1), 166-176.
  11. MSC Co., Ltd., 2014, Development of dyeing process of environmentally friendly using natural dyestuff. Report 1., Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Gyeongnam.
  12. Noh, Y. J., Lee, S. H., 2014, Natural dyeing of soybean protein fabrics - gallnut -, Fashion & Text. Res. J. 16(3), 462-468.
  13. Pantoja-Castro, M. A., Gonzalez-Rodriguez, H., 2011, Study by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis of Tannins and Tannic acid, Revista latinoamericana de química, 39(3), 107-112.
  14. Sampath, M., Vasanthi, M., 2013, Isolation, structural elucidation of flavonoids from Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thawaites and evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer potential, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(1), 336-341.
  15. Sul, J. H., Choi, S. C., 1994, A Study on tannin treatment of silk fabrics(II)-the effect of mordants, Journal of Korea Society of Dye and Finishers, 6(2), 1-9.
  16. Sul, J. H., Choi, S. C., Cho, K. R., 1995, A Study on tannin treatment of silk fabrics(II)-comparison condensed tannin with hydrolyzable tannin, J. Korea Society of Dye and Finishers, 7(3), 60-67.