Biochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics of Stirred Yogurt Containing Red or Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Chungyang) Juice

  • Kang, Su-Hyun (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Yu, Mi-Sang (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Mee (Institute of Animal Resource Center, Konkuk University) ;
  • Park, Sung-Kwon (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sejong University) ;
  • Lee, Chi-Ho (Department of Food Science & Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Hong-Gu (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Soo-Ki (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2018.01.16
  • Accepted : 2018.02.11
  • Published : 2018.06.30


Hot pepper has anti-obesity effects by controlling appetite and reducing blood fat level. To reduce the pungency of capsaicin, red or green hot pepper juice was fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230. Fermented hot pepper juice was then added into yogurt at different ratios. The pH of yogurt added with hot pepper juice was decreased from 4.61 to 4.48. Titratable acidity and counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased with increasing amount of pepper juice added. However, the viscosity was decreased significantly compared to the control. On chromaticity test, when more pepper juice was added, $L^*-value$ was decreased whereas $a^*$- and $b^*$- values were increased significantly (p<0.05). The spectrum of antimicrobial activity of yogurt was slightly changed compared to using pepper juice. Total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity were increased with increasing amount of pepper juice added. Stirred yogurt added with fermented red pepper juice at 3% or green pepper juice at 1% showed high scores in flavor, appearance, texture, and overall acceptance in sensory test. Yogurt added with fermented pepper juice with reduced pungency showed also good palatability during storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Yogurt with added hot pepper juice can be play an important role in functional food relative to anti-obesity.



Supported by : Konkuk University


  1. Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K. 2007. Inhibitory potential of herb, fruit, and fungal-enriched cheese against key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 8:46-54.
  2. Bae YE, Yoon KH. 2012. Production and characterization of thermostable protease from Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Korean traditional soybean paste. Kor J Microbiol 48:298-304.
  3. Baranidharan G, Das S, Bhaskar A. 2013. A review of the high concentration capsaicin patch and experiences in its use in the management of neuropatic pain. Ther Adv Neurol Disord 6:287-297.
  4. Beniwal RS, Arena VC, Thomas L, Narla S, Imperiale TF, Chaudhry RA, Ahmad A. 2003. A randomized trial of yoghurt for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci 48:2077-2082.
  5. Celik S, Bakirci I. 2003. Some properties of yoghurt produced by adding mulberry pekmez (concentrated juice). Int J Dairy Technol 56:26-29.
  6. Cho S, Kim JM, Yu MS, Yeon SJ, Lee CH, Kim SK. 2015. Fermentation of hot pepper juice by Bacillus licheniformis to reduce pungency. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 58:611-616.
  7. Cho S, Moon HI, Hong GE, Lee CH, Kim JM, Kim SK. 2014. Biodegradation of capsaicin by Bacillus licheniformis SK 1230. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 57:335-339.
  8. Chung HJ, Chu YR, Park HN, Jeon IS, Kang YS. 2010. Influence of the addition of MACA (Lepidium meyenis) hot extract on the quality and antioxidant activity of yoghurt. J Korean Soc Food Cult 25:334-341.
  9. Cieślik E, Gręda A, Adamus W. 2006. Contents of polyphenols in fruit and vegetables. Food Chem 94:135-142.
  10. Fernandez MA, Marette A. 2017. Potential health benefits of combining yogurt and fruits based on their probiotic and prebiotic properties. Adv Nutr 8:155S-164S.
  11. Gastaldi E, Lagaude A. 1996. Micellar transition state in casein between pH 5.5 and 5.0. J Food Sci 61:59-64.
  12. Howard LR, Talcott ST, Brenes CH, Villalon B. 2000. Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity. J Agric Food Chem 48:1713-1720.
  13. Hsu CL, Yen GC. 2007. Effects of capsaicin on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem 55:1730-1736.
  14. Hwang KJ, Choi KH, Kim MJ, Park CS, Cha J. 2007. Purification and characterization of a new fibrinolytic enzyme of Bacillus licheniformis KJ-31, isolated from Korean traditional Jeot-gal. J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:1469-1476.
  15. Illupapalayam VV, Smith S, Gamlath S. 2014. Consumer acceptability and antioxidant potential of probiotic-yoghurt with spices. LWT-Food Sci Technol 55:255-262.
  16. Jovanovic-Malinovska R, Kuzmanova S, Winkelhausen E. 2014. Oligosaccharide profile in fruits and vegetables as sources of prebiotics and functional foods. Int J Food Prop 17:949-965.
  17. Jung HA, Kim AN, Ahn EM, Kim YJ, Park SH, Lee JE, Lee SM. 2011. Quality characteristics of curd yoghurt with sweet pumpkin. Korean J Food Preserv 18:715-720.
  18. Karagül-Yüceer Y, Avsar YK. 2016. 10 Health attributes of yogurt and functional dairy products. In Development and manufacture of yogurt and other functional dairy products. Yildiz F (ed). pp 307-315. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  19. Keskin D, Toroglu S. 2011. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices. J Environ Biol 32:251-256.
  20. Korean Food Standards Codex. 2011. General test method. Korea Food and Drug Administration. Cheongwon, Korea. pp 10-1-1.
  21. Kim SI, Ko SH, Lee YJ, Choi HY, Han YS. 2008. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt supplemented with red ginseng extract. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 24:358-366.
  22. Kim Y, Cho JY, Kuk JH, Moon JH, Cho JI, Kim YC, Park KH. 2004. Identification and antimicrobial activity of phenylacetic acid produced by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from fermented soybean, Chungkook-Jang. Current Microbiol 48:312-317.
  23. Lee SM, Lee HS, Lee J, Yu KW, Kim KM, Ra KS, Lee SP, Suh HJ. 2010. Non-pungent Capsicum fermentation by B. subtilis P3-3 and its swimming endurance capacity in mice. Enzyme Microb Technol 47:200-205.
  24. Lin S, Zhang J, Chen H, Chen K, Lai F, Luo J, Wang Z, Bu H, Zhang R, Tong H. 2013. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress or capsaicin-induced apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 629750.
  25. Materska M, Perucka I. 2005. Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.). J Agric Food Chem 53:1750-1756.
  26. Min YW, Park SU, Jang YS, Kim YH, Rhee PL, Ko SH, Joo N, Kim SI, Kim CH, Chang DK. 2012. Effect of composite yoghurt enriched acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis. World J Gastroenterol 18:4563-4569.
  27. Moghbel A, Abbaspour H. 2013. Study of compressibility properties of yoghurt powder in order to prepare a complementary formulation. Iran J Pharm Res 12:231-237.
  28. Oboh G, Rocha JBT. 2007. Polyphenols in red pepper [Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (Tepin)] and their protective effect on some pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver. Eur Food Res Technol 225:239-247.
  29. Sanatombi K, Sharma GJ. 2008. Capsaicin content and pungency of different Capsicum spp. cultivars. Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj Napoca 36:89-90.
  30. Sazawal S, Habib AA, Dhingra U, Dhingra P, Dutta A, Dhingra P, Sarkar A, Deb S, Alam J, Husna AM, Black RE. 2013. Impact of micronutrient fortified of yoghurt on micronutrient status markers and growth-a randomized double blind controlled trial among school children in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 13:514-525.
  31. Shab-Bidar S, Neyestans TR, Djazayeng A, Haidari H. 2011. Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yoghurt during (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. BMC Med 9:125-134.
  32. Shin JH, Kim GM, Kang MJ, Yang SM, Sung NJ. 2010. Preparation and quality characteristics of yoghurt with black garlic extracts. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 26:307-313.
  33. Son CW, Shin YM, Shim HJ, Kim MH, Kim MY, Lee KJ, Kim MR. 2008. Changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yoghurts containing spirulina during storage. J East Asian Soc Diet Life 18:95-103.
  34. Troconis-Torres IG, Rojas-Lopez M, Hernandez-Rodriguez C, Villa-Tanaca L, Maldonado-Mendoza I, Dorantes-Alvarez L, Tellez-Medina D, Jaramillo-Flores ME. 2012. Biochemical and molecular analysis of some commercial samples of chilli peppers from Mexico. J Biomed Biotechnol 873090.
  35. Tsao R. 2010. Chemistry and biochemistry of dietary polyphenols. Nutrients 2:1231-1246.
  36. Vauzour D. 2012. Dietary polyphenols as modulators of brain functions: Biological actions and molecular mechanisms underpinning their beneficial effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev 914273.
  37. Vega-Galvez A, Scala KD, Rodriguez K, Lemus-Mondaca R, Miranda M, Lopez J, Perez-Won M. 2009. Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemcial properties, antioxidant capacity, color and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. var. Hungarian). Food Chem 117:647-653.
  38. Wahba NM, Amany AS, Ebraheim ZZ. 2010. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese. Foodborne Pathog Dis 7:411-418.
  39. Wei X, Luo M, Xu L, Zhang Y, Lin X, Kong P, Liu H. 2011. Production of fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by fermentation of chickpeas, with the evaluation of the anticoagulant and antioxidant properties of chickpeas. J Agric Food Chem 59:3957-3963.
  40. Yeon SJ, Kim SK, Kim JM, Lee SK, Lee CH. 2013. Effect of fermented pepper powder on body fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:2294-2297.
  41. Yu MS, Kim JM, Lee CH, Son YJ, Kim SK. 2014. Quality characteristics of stirred yoghurt added with fermented red pepper. Korean J Food Sci An 34:408-414.
  42. Zhang R, Humphrey I, Sahu RP, Shi Y, Srivastava SK. 2008. In vitro and in vivo induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in pancreatic cancer cells on mediated ROS generation and mitochondrial death pathway. Apoptosis 13:1465-1478.

Cited by

  1. Biochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Paprika Juice of Different Colors vol.40, pp.4, 2018,
  2. Evaluation of the synergistic olfactory effects of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and acetoin in a yogurt matrix using odor threshold, aroma intensity, and electronic nose analyses vol.103, pp.9, 2018,