DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Earthquake performance assessment of low and mid-rise buildings: Emphasis on URM buildings in Albania

  • Received : 2016.07.26
  • Accepted : 2018.05.08
  • Published : 2018.06.25

Abstract

This study focuses on the earthquake performance of two URM buildings having typical architectural configurations common for residential use constructed per pre-modern code in Albania. Both buildings are unreinforced clay brick masonry structures constructed in 1960 and 1984, respectively. The first building is a three-storey unreinforced one with masonry walls. The second one is confined masonry rising on five floors. Mechanical characteristics of masonry walls were determined based on experimental tests conducted according to ASTM C67-09 regulations. A global numerical model of the buildings was built, and masonry material was simulated as nonlinear. Pushover analyses are carried out to obtain capacity curves. Displacement demands were calculated according to Eurocode 8 and FEMA440 guidelines. Causes of building failures in recent earthquakes were examined using the results of this study. The results of the study showed that the URM building displays higher displacement and shear force demands that can be directly related to damage or collapse. On the other hand, the confined one exhibits relatively higher seismic resistance by indicating moderate damage. Moreover, effects of demand estimation approaches on performance assessment of URM buildings were compared. Deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of such buildings were discussed.

References

  1. Aliaj, S. and Allkja, S. (2014), "Studim inxhiniero-sizmologjik i sheshit te ndertimit te objektit me laretsi 2-7 kate me 1 kat nentoke ne rrugen 'Don Bosko'", Ne zonen e Laprakes, Tirana, Albania.
  2. American Association State Highway and Transportation Officials Standard, Designation: C67-09 (2008), Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile.
  3. Augenti, N. and Paris, F. (2011), "Constitutive modeling of tuff masonry in direct shear", Constr. Build. Mater., 25(4), 1612-1620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.10.002
  4. Benedetti, D., Carydis, G. and Pezzoli, P. (1998), "Shaking table tests on 24 simple masonry buildings", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(1), 67-90. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199801)27:1<67::AID-EQE719>3.0.CO;2-K
  5. Betti, M. and Vignoli, A. (2011) "Numerical assessment of the static and seismic behavior of the basilica of Santa Maria all‟Impruneta (Italy)", Constr. Build. Mater., 25(12), 4308-4324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.028
  6. Bilgin, H. (2007), "Seismic performance evaluation of public buildings using non-linear analysis procedures and solution methods", Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
  7. Bilgin, H. (2013), "Fragility-based assessment of public buildings in Turkey", Eng. Struct., 56, 1283-1294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.07.002
  8. Bilgin, H. (2015), "Generation of fragility curves for typical RC health care facilities: Emphasis on hospitals in Turkey", J. Perform. Constr. Facil., 30(3), 04015056.
  9. Bilgin, H. and Frangu, I. (2017), "Predicting the seismic performance of typical R/C healthcare facilities: emphasis on hospitals", Int. J. Adv. Struct. Eng., 9(3), 277-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40091-017-0164-y
  10. Bilgin, H. and Huta, E. (2016), "Earthquake performance assessment of low-rise URM building", Proceedings of the 3rd International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering, Epoka University, Tirana, May.
  11. Bilgin, H. and Korini, O. (2012), "Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania", Nat. Hazard. Earth Syst. Sci., 12(12), 3753-3764. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-3753-2012
  12. Cagnan, Z. (2012), "Numerical models for the seismic assessment of St. Nicholas Cathedral, Cyprus", Int. J. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 39, 50-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.02.007
  13. Calderini, C. and Lagomarsino, S. (2008), "A continuum model for in-plane anisotropic inelastic behaviour of masonry", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 134(2), 209-220. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:2(209)
  14. Calvi, G.M. (1999), "A displacement-based approach for vulnerability evaluation of classes of buildings", J. Earthq. Eng., 3(3), 411-438. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469909350353
  15. Chen, S.Y., Moon, F.L. and Yi, T. (2008), "A macroelement for the nonlinear analysis of in-plane unreinforced masonry piers", Eng. Struct., 30, 2242-2252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.12.001
  16. Decanni, L., D'Amore, E., Goretti, A., Langenbach, R., Mollaioli, F. and Rasulo, A. (2004), "Performance of masonry buildings during the 2002 Molise, Italy earthquake", Earthq. Spectra, 20, 191-220. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1765106
  17. DIANA (2014), Finite Element Analysis: User's Manual, Concrete and Masonry Analysis, Netherlands.
  18. EN 1998-1 (2004), Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance - Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings, The European Union Per Regulation 305/2011, Directive 98/34/EC, Directive 2004/18/EC.
  19. Eurocode 6 (1996), Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings-Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.
  20. Farshchi, D.M., Motavall, M., Schumacher, A. and Marefat, M.S. (2009), "Numerical modeling of in-plane behaviour of URM walls and an investigation into the aspect ratio, vertical and horizontal post-tensioning and head joint as a parametric study", Arch. Civil Mech. Eng., 9(1), 5-27 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1644-9665(12)60037-5
  21. Fema-440 (2005), "Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures", Applied Tech. Council.
  22. Foraboschi, P. and Vanin, A. (2013a), "Non-linear static analysis of masonry buildings based on a strut-and-tie modeling", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 55, 44-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.08.005
  23. Freeman, S.A., Nicoletti, J.P. and Tyrell, J.V. (1975), "Evaluations of existing buildings for seismic risk-A case study of Puget sound naval shipyard, Bremerton, Washington", Proceedings of U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June.
  24. Huta, E. (2015), "Earthquake performance assessment of a lowand mid-rise URM building", MSc Thesis, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania.
  25. Inel, M., Bilgin, H. and Ozmen, H.B. (2008), "Seismic capacity evaluation of school buildings in Turkey", Pro. Inst. Civil Eng., Struct. Build., 161(3), 147-159. https://doi.org/10.1680/stbu.2008.161.3.147
  26. Kaplan, H., Bilgin, H., Yilmaz, S., Binici, H. and Oztas, A. (2010), "Structural damages of L'Aquila earthquake", Nat. Hazard. Earth. Syst. Sci., 10, 499-507. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-499-2010
  27. Klingner, R.E. (2006), "Behavior of masonry in the Northridge (US) and Tecoma'n-Colima (Mexico) earthquakes: Lessons learned, and changes in US design provisions", Constr. Build. Mater., 20, 209-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.024
  28. Korini, O. (2012), "Seismic assessment of albanian masonry buildings using nonlinear procedures", MSc Thesis, EPOKA University, Tirana, Albania.
  29. Korkmaz, K.A. (2009), "Seismic safety assessment of unreinforced masonry low-rise buildings in Pakistan and its neighborhood", Nat. Hazard. Earth Syst. Sci., 9(3), 1021-1031. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-1021-2009
  30. KTP-9-78 (1978), Albanian Masonry Design Code, Tirana, Albania.
  31. KTP-N2-89 (1989), Albanian Seismic Design Code, Tirana, Albania.
  32. Lagomarsino, S. and Penna, A. (2003), "Guidelines for the implementation of the II level vulnerability methodology. WP4: Vulnerability assessment of current buildings. RISK-UE project: An advanced approach to earthquake risk scenarios with application to different European towns", Contract Number EVK4-CT-2000-00014.
  33. Lagomarsino, S., Galasco, A. and Penna, A. (2007), "Nonlinear macro element dynamic analysis of masonry buildings", Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Rethymno, Crete.
  34. Lourenco, P.B. (1996), "Computational strategies for masonry structures", PhD Dissertation, Delft: Delft University Press, Netherland.
  35. Lourenco, P.B. Recent Advances in Masonry Modeling: Micro-Modeling and Homogenization, Multscale Modeling in Solid Mechanics: Computational Approaches, Eds. Ugo Galvanetto and M H Aliabadi, Imperial College Press., London.
  36. Lourenco, P.B., Almeida, J.C. and Barros, J.A. (2005), "Experimental investigation of brick under uniaxial tensile testing", Masonry Int., 18(1), 11-20..
  37. Lourenco, P.B., Rots, J.G. and Blaauwendraad, J. (2008), "Continuum model for masonry: Parameter estimation and validation", J. Struct. Eng., 124, 642-652.
  38. Lourenco, P.B., Trujillo, A., Mendes, N. and Ramos, L.F. (2012), "Seismic performance of the St. George of the Latins church: Lessons learned from studying masonry ruins", Eng. Struct., 40, 501-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.03.003
  39. Mendes, N. and Lourenco, P.B. (2010), "Seismic assessment of masonry "Gaiolerio" buildings in Lisbon", J. Eartq. Eng., 14(1), 80-101.
  40. Preciado, A., Lester, J., Ingham, J.M., Pender, M. and Wang, G. (2014), "Performance of the Christchurch, New Zealand Cathedral during the M7.1 2010 Canterbury earthquake", Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions (SAHC), Mexico City, October.
  41. Preciado, A., Orduna, A., Bartoli, G. and Budelmann, H. (2015), "Facade seismic failure simulation of an old Cathedral in Colima, Mexico by 3D limit analysis and nonlinear finite element method", J. Eng. Fail. Anal., 49, 20-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2014.12.003
  42. Preciado, A., Ramirez-Gaytan, A., Gutierrez, N., Vargas, D., Falcon, J.M. and Ochoa, G. (2018), "Nonlinear earthquake capacity of slender old masonry structures prestressed with steel, FRP and NiTi SMA tendons", Steel Compos. Struct., 26(2), 213-226. https://doi.org/10.12989/SCS.2018.26.2.213
  43. Preciado, A., Ramirez-Gaytan, A., Salido-Ruiz, R.A., Caro-Becerra, J.L. and Lujan-Godinez, R. (2015), "Earthquake risk assessment methods of unreinforced masonry structures: Hazard and vulnerability", Eartq. Struct., 9(4), 719-733. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2015.9.4.719
  44. Preciado, A., Sperbeck, S.T. and Ramirez-Gaytan, A. (2016), "Seismic vulnerability enhancement of medieval and masonry bell towers externally prestressed with unbonded smart tendons", J. Eng. Struct., 122, 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.05.007
  45. Taylor, R.L. and Zhu, J.Z. (2005), The Finite Element Method: its Basis and Fundementals, Elsevier.
  46. Wang, S.Y., Sloan, S.W., Abbo, A.J., Masia, M.J. and Tan, C.A. (2012), "Numerical simulation of the failure process of unreinforced masonry walls due to concentrated static and dynamic loading", Int. J. Solid. Struct., 49(2), 377-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2011.10.016
  47. Yilmaz, S., Tama, Y.S. and Bilgin, H. (2013), "Seismic performance evaluation of unreinforced masonry school buildings in Turkey", J. Vib. Control, 19(16), 2421-2433. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546312453190
  48. Zamfirescu, D. and Fajfar, P. (2001), "Comparison of simplified procedures for nonlinear seismic analysis of structures", The Third U.S.-Japan Workshop on Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures, Seattle,Washington, August.