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Evolution and Design Principles of the Diverse Chloroplast Transit Peptides

  • Lee, Dong Wook (Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Hwang, Inhwan (Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology)
  • Received : 2018.01.19
  • Accepted : 2018.02.06
  • Published : 2018.03.31

Abstract

Chloroplasts are present in organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. These organelles are thought to have originated from photosynthetic cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. During endosymbiosis, most cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the host nucleus. Therefore, most chloroplast proteins became encoded in the nuclear genome and must return to the chloroplast after translation. The N-terminal cleavable transit peptide (TP) is necessary and sufficient for the import of nucleus-encoded interior chloroplast proteins. Over the past decade, extensive research on the TP has revealed many important characteristic features of TPs. These studies have also shed light on the question of how the many diverse TPs could have evolved to target specific proteins to the chloroplast. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of TPs. We also highlight recent advances in our understanding of TP evolution and provide future perspectives about this important research area.

Acknowledgement

Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration, National Research Foundation

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