DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

An Experimental Study on the Extinguishing Performance of Sprinkler Heads according to Discharge Coefficient

스프링클러 헤드의 방수상수에 따른 소화성능에 관한 실험적 연구

  • Received : 2017.06.23
  • Accepted : 2018.03.16
  • Published : 2018.04.30

Abstract

The sprinkler system is a basic fire extinguishing system widely used, but there is a lack of quantitative assessment of its performance. In this study, to evaluate the fire extinguishing performance of the sprinkler head according to the discharge coefficients, experiments were conducted. Experimental sprinkler heads were selected with heads having K50, K80 and K115 water discharge coefficients, and the fire source was assumed to be an indoor fire in Class A Model 1. As experimental results, the time required for the fire chamber to cool down to $200^{\circ}C$ was 26 seconds for the K115 head, 414 seconds for the K80 head, and 481 seconds for the K50 head, so the cooling time of the K115 head was decreased by 94.5% compared to K50 head. In the case of restoring the oxygen concentration to 15%, the K115 head did not decrease below the oxygen concentration of 15%, and the K80 head took 145 seconds and the K50 head took 484 seconds. The lowest oxygen concentration in the fire chamber was 16.1% for the K115 head, 14.33% for the K80 head, and 11.28% for the K50 head, indicating that the K115 head was superior to the K80 and K50 heads by 13.1% and 43.7%, respectively. As the experimental results show, there is big difference in the extinguishing performance depending on the discharge coefficients of the sprinkler head. Therefore, in designing the sprinkler system, the discharge coefficients of the sprinkler head should be selected considering the heat release rate at the installation site and the fire extinguishing characteristics of sprinkler head.

Keywords

'K' factor;sprinkler head;discharge coefficients

References

  1. Y. J. Lee and H. J. Park, "A Study on Introduction to Performance based Design of Sprinkler Installation on Risk Level for Individual Occupancy in Korea," J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng. Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012.
  2. J. R. Hall, Jr., "US Experience with Sprinklers," National Fire Protection Association, 2013.
  3. MPSS(Ministry of Public Safety and Security, Republic of Korea), "Standard of model approval and inspection technology for sprinkler head," 2016.
  4. M. H. Kim and C.S. Shin, "Efficiency of Water Mist Suppression System Containing Viscosity Agent to Extinguish Wood Cribs Fire," J. Korean Soc. Saf., Vol. 29, No. 4, 2014.
  5. MPSS(Ministry of Public Safety and Security, Republic of Korea), "National Fire Safety Codes of Basic Sprinkler Systems (NFSC 103A)," 2016.
  6. I. C. Jeong and Y. J. Chung, "A Study on Carbon Monoxide and Other Gases During the Fire Test", Fire Sci. Eng., Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 44-56, 2013. https://doi.org/10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.44
  7. W. D. Walton, "SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering," Section 3, National Fire Protection Association, 2008.
  8. MPSS(Ministry of Public Safety and Security, Republic of Korea), "Performance-oriented Design Methods and Standards for Fire-fighting Systems," 2016.
  9. H. J. Kim, W. K. Kim, H. J. Park, S. H. Choi and J. H. Chun, "A Study on the Performance Criteria for Performance-Based Design", Summer Conference of Korea Institute of Fire Science & Engineering, 2004.
  10. U. C. Luft, "Aviation Physiology: the Effects of Altitude in Handbook of Physiology," American Physiology Society, Washington DC, pp. 1099-1145, 1965.
  11. K. W. Kang, "A Study of the Impact of Hydrogen Bonds in Water on Water-based Suppression System," Master thesis, University of Seoul, 2009.