A Development of Evaluation Indicators for Performance Improvement of Horticultural Therapy Garden

원예치료정원의 성능개선을 위한 평가지표 개발

  • Ahn, Je-Jun (Green Care Center) ;
  • Park, Yool-Jin (Dept. of Ecology Landscape Architecture Design, Chonbuk National Unversity)
  • 안제준 (그린케어센터) ;
  • 박율진 (전북대학교 생태조경디자인학과)
  • Received : 2018.11.22
  • Accepted : 2018.12.17
  • Published : 2018.12.31


The purpose of this research is to develop evaluation indicators forperformance improvement of horticultural therapy garden. In order to achieve a therapeutic purpose, the gardening activity held by the trained horticultural therapist. Moreover, horticultural therapy is 'a medical model' for the treatment and basic premise of the research was set, as horticultural therapy garden is characterized area to support activities of patients and horticultural therapist functionally and efficiently. For this study, three times of Delphi and AHP techniques were proceeded to export panels who were recruited by purposive sampling. Through these techniques, it was possible to deduct the evaluation indicator which maximizes the performance of the horticultural therapy garden. The evaluation items were prioritized by typing and stratification of the indicator. The results and discussions were stated as followings. Firstly, a questionnaire of experts was conducted to horticultural therapists and civil servants who were in charge of horticultural therapy. As results(horticultural therapists: 87.8%, civil servants: 75.2%), It is possible to conclude that both positions have the high recognition and agreed on the necessity of horticultural therapy. Secondly, Delphi investigation was conducted three times in order to develop the evaluation indicator for performance evaluation. After Delphi analysis, total 34 of evaluation elements to improve the performance of the horticultural therapy garden by reliability and validity analysis results. Thirdly, AHP analysis of each evaluation indicator was conducted on the relative importance and weighting. Moreover, the results showed 'interaction between nature and human' as the most important element, and in order of 'plan of the program', 'social interaction', 'sustainable environmental', and 'universal design rule', respectively. On the other hand, the exports from the university and research institute evaluated the importance of 'interaction between nature and human', while horticultural therapists chose 'plan of the program' as the most important element. Fourthly, the total weight was used to develop weight applied evaluation indicator for the performance evaluation of the horticultural therapy garden. The weight applying to evaluation index is generally calculated multiply the evaluation scores and the total weight using AHP analysis. Finally, 'the evaluation indicator and evaluation score sheet for performance improvement of the horticultural therapy garden' was finally stated based on the relative order of priority between evaluation indicators and analyzing the weight. If it was deducted the improvement points for the efficiency of already established horticultural therapy garden using the 'weight applied evaluation sheet', it is possible to expand it by judging the importance with the decision of the priority because the item importance decided by experts was reflected. Moreover, in the condition of new garden establishment, it is expected to be helpful in suggesting ways for performance improvement and in setting the guidelines by understanding the major indicators of performance improvement in horticultural therapy activity.

Table 1. Period and Method of Collecting Questionaries for Delphi and AHP Surveys

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. General Features of Expert Groups for Delphi Survey

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Theory and Basis of Evaluation Indices for Performance Evaluation of Horticultural Therapy Garden

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. Reliability Analysis of the Results from the 2nd Delphi Survey

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0004.png 이미지

Table 5 Results of the 3rd Delphi Analysis

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0005.png 이미지

Table 6. Composite Weighted Scores of Evaluation Factors for Each Professional Area

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0006.png 이미지

Table 7. Weighted Evaluation Indicators

HJOHBR_2018_v36n4_113_t0007.png 이미지


  1. Cooper, M. C. and Naomi, A. S.(2014). Therapeutic Landscape: An Evidence-Based Approach to Designing Healing Gardens and Restorative Outdoor Spaces. John Wiley & Sons, Inc,, CANADA.
  2. Warner, S. B. Jr.(1995). Restorative Gardens: Recovering Some Human Wisdom for Modern Design(unpublished manu-script).
  3. Davis, S.(1997). Development of the profession of horticultural therapy. Haworth Press, NY, USA.
  4. Stoneham, J. and T. Peter.(1994). Landscape design and disabled people. Garden Art Press, London, UK.
  5. Simson, S. P. and M. C. Straus.(1998). Horticulture as Therapy: principles and practice. CRC Press, NY, USA.
  6. Scholz, S.(2012). Chilgok internation horticultural therapy conference. Chilgok ATS Center, Chilgokgun, Korea.
  7. Kwack, B. H.(1984). Newly developing field of horticulture and horticultural science. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 2(1):4-8.
  8. Ahn, J. J.(2013). Universal design evaluation of horticultural therapy garden through the analytic hierarchy process analysis. Master's Thesis Korea Univ. Seoul, Korea.
  9. An, J. S.(2011). The Evaluation Criteria of Preservation Condition for the Historic Garden through Delphi Technique & Analytic Hierarchy Process. Doctoral thesis of Sungkyunkwan University.
  10. Saaty, T. L.(1982). The Analytic Hierarchy Process Architecture Science Review. 25(-): 64-69.
  11. Kaplan, R. and S. Kaplan.(1989). Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Heerwagen, J. H. and B. Gregory.(2008). "Biophilia and Sensory Aesthetics." pp. 227-241 in Biophilic Design, edited by S. Kellert, J. Heerwagen, and J. Mador. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
  13. Lewis, C. A.(1996). Green nature/human nature: the meaning of plants in our lives. University of Illinois Press, IL, USA.
  14. Relf, P. D.(1981). The use of horticultural in vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Rehab. 47(-): 53-56.