The Effect of Sales Manager Coaching on the Motivation and Organizational Effectiveness Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Achievement Needs

영업관리자 코칭이 동기부여와 조직유효성에 미치는 영향: 성취욕구의 조절효과를 중심으로

  • Received : 2018.03.26
  • Accepted : 2018.04.05
  • Published : 2018.04.28


In the recent years, coaching leadership has been in the spotlight as being an essential human resources management strategy for improving organizational effectiveness in addition to strengthening the capacity of organizational members. Therefore, this study empirical analyses the effect of sales coaching on motivation and organizational effectiveness and the moderating effect of achievement needs. As a result, First, sales manager coaching appeared to have positive effect on the motivation and organizational effectiveness (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance). Second, motivation appeared to have positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Third, achievement need appeared to have moderating effect in the relationship between sales manager coaching and organizational commitment. According to the study results, sales managers' coaching has positive effects on improving salespeople's performance as well as their levels of motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. In addition, this study proves that depending on the level of salespeople's need for achievement, the purpose and approach of coaching styles must be different to maximize the positive effects. This empirical study contributes to the theoretical as well as practical improvements of leadership coaching by verifying the conditional attributes for implementing effective sales managers' coaching for improving organizational effectiveness.


Sales Coaching;Motivation;Job Satisfaction;Organizational Commitment;Achievement Needs


  1. 김종윤, "영업사원의 학습목표지향성, 창의성, 업무방법, 업무강도, 업무성과의 구조적 관계," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제18권, 제1호, pp.90-107, 2017.
  2. M. Dixon and B. Adamson, The Challenger Sales, New York, PORTFOLI/PENGUIN, 2011.
  3. R. L. Oliver and E. Anderson, "An Empirical Test of the Consequences of Behavior-and Outcome-Based Sales Control Systems," Journal of marketing, Vol.58, No.4, pp.53-67, 1994.
  4. B. Redshaw, "Do we really understand coaching? How can we make it work better?," Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol.32, No.3, pp.106-108, 2000.
  5. D. C. Feldman and M. J. Lankau, "Executive Coaching: A Review and Agenda for Future Research," Journal of Management, Vol.31, No.6, pp.829-848, 2005.
  6. 김상법, 박성영, 나운봉, "판매관리자의 코칭이 판매원의 역할지각 및 성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 탐색적 연구," 마케팅관리연구, 제14권, 제4호, pp.159-176, 2009.
  7. M. Landsberg, The Tao of Coaching Boost Your Effectiveness at Work by Inspiring and Developing Those Around You, PROFILE BOOKS LTD. LONDON. 2015.
  8. 정태영, 최운실, "영업관리자의 코칭이 직원의 직무성과에 미치는 영향 분석: 평생학습 및 HRD 에서의 코칭성과와 신뢰의 매개효과 중심으로," HRD 연구, 제11권, 제3호, pp.125-153, 2009.
  9. M. Michel and A. Pierre, COACHING Qutils et pratiques, 3e edition, ARMAND COLIN, 2014.
  10. M. J. Swenson and J. Herche, "Social Values and Salesperson Performance: An Empirical Examination," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.22, No.3, pp.283-289, 1994.
  11. Y. Weiner, "Commitment in organizations: a normative view," Academy of management Review, Vol.7, No.3, pp.418-428, 1982.
  12. 조영삼, "목표지향성과 직무만족도," 대한경영학회지, 제30권, 제5호, pp.835-855, 2017.
  13. V. Badrinarayanan, A. Dixon, V. L. West, and G. M. Zank, "Professional sales coaching: an integrative review and research agenda," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.49, No.7/8, pp.1087-1113, 2015.
  14. J. Bennett and M. W. Burs, "Coaching In Organizations: Current Trends and Future Opportunities," Od Practitioner, Vol.41, No.1, pp.2-7, 2009.
  15. A-F. Travis and D. Lane, "Does Coaching Work Or Are We Asking The Wrong Question," International Coaching Psychology Review, Vol.1, No.1, pp.23-36, 2006.
  16. A. D. Ellinger and R. P. Bostrom, "Managerial coaching behaviors in learning organizations," Journal of Management Development, Vol.18, No.9, pp.752-771, 1999.
  17. A. D. Ellinger, "Antecedents and consequences of coaching behavior," Performance Improvement Quarterly, Vol.16, No.1, pp.5-8, 2003.
  18. A. D. Ellinger, A. E. Ellinger, and S. B. Keller, "Supervisory Coaching Behavior, Employee Satisfaction And Warehouse Employee Performance: A Dyadic Perspective In The Distribution Industry," Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.14, No.4, pp.435-458, 2003.
  19. D. F. Elloy, "Superleader Behaviors And Self-Managed Work Teams: Perceptions of Supervisory Behaviors, Satisfaction With Growth, And Team Functions,"Journal of Business and Economics Research, Vol.4, No.2, pp.97-102, 2006.
  20. P. Lok and J. Crawford, "The Effect Of Organizational Culture And Leadership Style On Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment: A Cross-National Comparison," Journal of Management Development, Vol.23, No.4, pp.321-338, 2004.
  21. 조규인, 한욱상, "내부마케팅에서 코칭이 직무만족과 조직몰입 및 고객지향성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구," 상업교육연구, 제27권, 제3호, pp.91-117, 2013.
  22. 박연임, 박계홍, "리더의 코칭행동이 팀 성과와 팀 만족에 미치는 영향에 있어서 자기효능감, 진정추구리더십의 조절효과," 상업교육연구, 제26권, 제4호, pp.153-182, 2012.
  23. L. Noelker, F. Ejaz, H. Menne, and J. Bagakas, "Factors Affecting Frontline Workers' Satisfaction With Supervision," Journal of Aging and Health, Vol.21, No.1, pp.85-101, 2009.
  24. K. J. Corcoran, L. K. Peterson, D. B. Baitch, and M. F. Barrett, High Performance Sales Organizations, Irwin, Chicago, IL. 1995.
  25. G. A. Rich, "He constructs of sales coaching: supervisory feedback, role modeling and trust," Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol.18, No.1, pp.53-63, 1998.
  26. L. B. Corner and T. Drollinger, "Active empathetic listening and selling success: A conceptual framework," Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol.19, No.1, pp.15-29, 1999.
  27. O. Vincent, "The effects of coaching on salespeople's attitudes and behaviors a contingency approach," European journal of marketing, Vol.43, No.8, pp.939-960, 2008.
  28. T. R. Mitchell, "Motivation: New Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice," Academy Management of Review, Vol.7, No.1, pp.80-88, 1982.
  29. V. H. Vroom, Work and Motivation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1964.
  30. R. P. Bagozzi, "Salesforce performance and satisfaction as a function of individual difference, interpersonal, and situational factors," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.15, No.4, pp.517-531, 1978.
  31. A. K. Kohli, "Some Unexplored Supervisory Behaviors and Their Influence on Salespeople's Role Clarity, Specific Self-Esteem, Job Satisfaction, and Motivation," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.22, No.4, pp.424-433, 1985.
  32. J. R. Hackman and R. Wageman, "A theory of team coaching," Academy of Management Review, Vol.30, No.2, pp.269-287, 2005.
  33. 고현숙, 백기복, 이신자, "경영자 코칭 (executive coaching) 에 대한 조사 연구," 코칭능력개발지, 제13권, 제2호, pp.31-46, 2011.
  34. 김정식, 김현철, "리더의 코칭과 부하직원들의 성과간의 관계에서 내재적 동기부여, 직무만족 및 직무몰입의 영향," 대한경영학회지, 제25권, 제2호, pp.675-695, 2012.
  35. 김세화, 심덕섭, 김형진, "지원적 리더십이 내재적 동기부여 및 직무성과에 미치는 영향," 대한경영학회지, 제30권, 제9호, pp.1535-1558, 2017.
  36. E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, "The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality," Journal of Research in Personality, Vol.19, No.2, pp.109-134, 1985.
  37. P. K. Tyagi, "The effects on stressful organizational conditions salesperson work motivation," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.13, No.1-2, p.299, 1985.
  38. 고종욱, 김명숙, 박종표, "조직공정성이 조직유효성에 미치는 영향과 상사신뢰의 매개역할," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제14권, 제7호, pp.435-447, 2014.
  39. S. P. Robbins, Organization Theory: Structures, Designs, And Applications, 3/e. Pearson Education India, 1983.
  40. 신유근, 조직론, 서울: 다산출판사, 1991.
  41. B. Hersey and K. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior, Englewood Cliffs. N. J, Prentice-Hall, 1982.
  42. 류호훈, 조동혁, "공기업 조직구성원의 직무순환인식이 조직유효성에 미치는 영향," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제18권, 제2호, pp.626-641, 2018
  43. A. Furnham, A. Eracleous, and T. Chamorro-Premuzic, :"Personality, motivation and job satisfaction: Hertzberg meets the Big Five," Journal of managerial psychology, Vol.24, No.8, pp.765-779, 2009.
  44. J. R. Schermerhorn, J. G. Hunt, and R. N. Osborn, Organizational Behavior, N.Y. : John, Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1997.
  45. B. M. Bass, Leadership and performance beyond expectations, Collier Macmillan, 1985.
  46. R. T. Mowday, R. M. Steers, and L. W. Porter, "The measurement of organizational commitment," Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.14, No.2, pp.224-247, 1979.
  47. J. P. Meyer, N. J. Allen, and C. A. Smith, "Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.78, No.4, pp.538-551, 1984.
  48. S. Kim, "Assessing the influence of managerial coaching on employee outcomes," Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.25, No.1, pp.59-85, 2014.
  49. S. Kim, T. M. Egan, W. Kim, and J. Kim, "The impact of managerial coaching behavior on employee work-related reactions," Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol.28, No.3, pp.315-330, 2013.
  50. 조성진, 송계충, "코칭이 자기효능감, 조직유효성 및 가족관계에 미치는 영향에 관한 현장실험 연구," 인사조직연구, 제19권, 제2호, pp.201-252, 2011.
  51. 한태진, 김홍, "공기업 CEO의 리더십특성이 조직구성원의 리더신뢰수준과 조직유효성에 미치는 영향," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제8권, 제11호, pp.306-322, 2008.
  52. 박종혁, "다기능프로젝트팀의 설계, 팀 코칭, 팀 개발과 성과," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제11권, 제8호, pp.260-273, 2011.
  53. 양일선, 이승호, 이덕로, "코칭리더십이 조직유효성에 미치는 영향-부하의 감성지능의 매개효과를 중심으로," 인적자원관리연구, 제22권, 제5호, pp.49-72, 2015.
  54. G. J. Badovick, F. J. Hadaway, and P. F. Kaminski, "Attributions and emotions: The effects on salesperson motivation after successful vs. unsuccessful quota performance," Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol.12, No.3, pp.1-11, 1992.
  55. 김상범, 박성영, 나운봉, "코칭의 이론적 모형과 효과에 관한 연구," 소비문화연구, 제13권, 제3호, pp.1-30, 2010.
  56. A. Etzioni, Organizational Behavior Understanding life at work, Foreman and Co, 1983.
  57. G. A. Churchill, N. M. Ford, S. W. Hartley, and O. C,. Walker, "The Determinants of Salesperson Performance: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.22, No.2, pp.103-118, 1985.
  58. O. C. Walker Jr, G. A. Churchill Jr, and N. M. Ford, "Motivation and Performance in Industrial Selling: Present Knowledge and Needed Research," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.14, No.2, pp.156-168, 1977.
  59. D. N. Behrman, W. J. Bigoness, and W. D. Perreault Jr, "Sources of job related ambiguity and their consequences upon salespersons' job satisfaction and performance," Management Science, Vol.27, No.11, pp.1246-1260, 1981.
  60. H. Sujan, B. A. Weitz, and N. Kumar, "Learning orientation, working smart, and effective selling," The Journal of Marketing, Vol.58, No.3, pp.39-52, 1994.
  61. 박민혜, 박정은, 박준엽, "효율적인 영업 방식이 거래 관계의 지로가 영업성과에 미치는 영향: 고객 지향성과 학습지향성을 중심으로," 마케팅관리연구, 제19권, 제4호, pp.63-81, 2014.
  62. 이생룡, 이승계, 이의연, "성과주의 보상제도와 조직유효성 간의 관계에서 동기부여의 매개효과," 인적자원개발연구, Vol.20, No.3, pp.73-102, 2017.
  63. R. A. Sutermeister, People and productiveity, 3d ed. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1976.
  64. 한나영, 김영조, "심리적 임파워먼트와 조직시민행동의 관계에 대한 성취욕구의 조절효과 검증," 인사조직연구, 제19권, 제1호, pp.185-226, 2011.
  65. E. A. Ward, "Generaliz ability of psychological research from undergraduates to employed adult," Journal of Social Psychology, Vol.133, No.4, pp.513-519, 1993.
  66. A. Kukla, "Attributional determinants of achievement-related behaviour," Journal of Personality and Psychology, Vol.21, No.2, pp.166-174, 1972.
  67. N. R. Klich and D. C. Feldman, "The role of approval and achievement needs in feedback seeking behavior," Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol.4, No.4, pp.554-570, 1992.
  68. D. C. McClelland, J. W. Atkinson, R. A. Clark, and E. L. Lowell, Century psychology series, The achievement motive, East Norwalk, CT, US, 1953.
  69. 서정하, "한국 벤처기업 CEO의 카리스마적 리더십행위와 구성원의 조직몰입: 성취욕구의 조절효과에 대한 연구," 조직과 인사관리연구, 제29권, 제3호, pp.199-227, 2005.
  70. 고환상, 서재현, "변혁적 리더십, 조직후원인식, 성취욕구가 조직몰입에 미치는 영향," 대한경영학회지, 제25권, 제1호, pp.435-459, 2012.
  71. V. Onyemah, "Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, and Performance: Empirical Evidence of an Inverted U Relationship," Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol.28, No.3, pp.299-313, 2008.
  72. S. B. Bacharach and S. M. Mitchell, "The sources of dissatisfaction in educational administration: A role-specific analysis," Educational administration quarterly, Vol.19, No.1, pp.101-128, 1983
  73. R. M. Steers and D. N. Braunstein, "A behaviorally-based measure of manifest needs in work settings," Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.9, No.2, pp.251-266, 1976.