The Mediating Effect of Rapport on the Relationship between Organizational Culture Type and Innovative Behavior of Hotel Chefs

호텔조리사의 조직문화유형과 혁신행동 관계에 라포의 매개효과

  • Park, Jeong-Seop (Dept. of Foodservice & Culinary Management, Kyonggi University) ;
  • Jeon, Jang-Chul (Dept. of Foodservice & Culinary Management, Kyonggi University) ;
  • Kwon, Ki-Wan (Dept. of Hotel Culinary Art, Seoyeong University)
  • 박정섭 (경기대학교 외식조리관리학과) ;
  • 전장철 (경기대학교 외식조리관리학과) ;
  • 권기완 (서영대학교 호텔조리학부)
  • Received : 2018.02.26
  • Accepted : 2018.03.23
  • Published : 2018.03.31


The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of rapport on the relationship between type of organizational culture and innovative behavior of hotel chefs. In order to accomplish the research purpose, data were collected from 202 chefs working at five-star hotels located in Gwangju and Jeonnam areas, and SPSS 22.0 Program was used to conduct frequency analysis, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression analysis and mediation effect analysis. The results of the study were as follows. Firstly, it was found that innovative behaviors of hotel chefs are significantly affected by three types of organizational culture: rational culture, consensual culture, and developmental culture. Secondly, it was found that rational and consensual culture have significant effect on rapport. Thirdly, it was found that better-formed rapport in hotel chefs significantly remarkably influences their innovative behavior. Fourthly, the study results revealed that rapport has a mediating effect on the relationship between type of organizational culture and innovative behavior of hotel chefs. Thus, in order to induce voluntary innovative behaviors from building rapport in the hotel organization, it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies which will form a work environment where chefs can freely engage in mutual exchanges and build trust with one another.


  1. Ahn, G. J., & Kim, D. G. (2017). The effect of food service organization employee's leadership type on organizational commiment and managerial performance: focused on Busan Haeundae area. Culinary Science & Hospitality Research, 23(5), 187-198.
  2. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderate mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  3. Chang, G. W., & Kim, S. E. (2007). Factors affecting government innovation: an analysis of consolidated agencies. Korean Society and Public Administration, 17(4), 17-41.
  4. Cho, J. G., & Kim, S. J. (2015). The effect of hotel employees' communication satisfaction on the rapport and organizational commitment. Tourism and Service Research, 13(1), 19-39.
  5. Choi, I. O., Park, J. H., & Sun, J. G. (2011). A study on the relationship between organizational culture and innovative behaviors of organizational members: the moderating effect of organizational trust and task conflict. The Journal of Business and Economics, 27(3), 1-33.
  6. Choi, W. S., & Lee, S. B. (2014). The effects of the emotional leadership perceived by hotel cuisine employees on empowerment, trust and innovative behavior. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 20(2), 1-15.
  7. Gremler, D. D., & Gwinner, K. P. (2000). Customer-employee rapport in service relationship. Journal of Service Research, 3(1), 82-104.
  8. Ha, Y. G. (2010). Mediating effects of social support on the relationship between organizational justice and employee's innovative behavior in hotel firms. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 10(10), 368-377.
  9. Han, Y. J., & Lee, H. R. (2017). A study on the influence of guest's self-regulatory mode on complaint behavior in a service failure case: Based on moderating effect of cognized employee's rapport building behavior. Journal of Tourism and Leisure Research, 29(5), 141-161.
  10. Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reword fairness and innovative work behavior. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(1), 287-302.
  11. Je, M. J., & Kim, Y. G. (2010). Effect of person-organization fit and person-job fit on occupational commitment, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions of cooks. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 16(5), 50-63.
  12. Jin, Y. H. (2016). Effects of organizational culture perception on innovative work behavior-mediating effect of organization support perception. The Journal of Policy Development, 16(2), 93-119.
  13. Jung, H. J., & Ryoo, K. M. (2010). The effects of the social support of cook and self confidence on their passion for accomplishments. Korea Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 24(2), 235-258.
  14. Kang, N. K. (2015). The influences of rapport formation and shopping tendency on hair goods purchase behavior and confidence building (Doctoral dissertation). Seokyeng University.
  15. Kim, B. G., & Cho, Y. B. (2015). The effects of open kitchen employees' emotional labor on job satisfaction and customer orientation. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 21(2), 27-40.
  16. Kim, H. Y. (2016a). The personal impact on the organization and competence of hotel cook employees: Focused on the mediating effect of trust boss. Culinary Science & Hospitality Research, 22(4), 170-180.
  17. Kim, H. Y. (2016b). The impact of emotional labor according to rapport on job burnout, and organizational satisfaction as perceived by five-star hotel chefs in Seoul. Culinary Science & Hospitality Research, 22(5), 339-351.
  18. Kim, K. Y., Lee, D. K., & Lee, S. M. (2014). On job satisfaction and organizational commitment of food service enterprise organizational culture influences. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 28(9), 179-189.
  19. Kim, Y. H. (2015). A study on the relationships among personality, LMX(Leader-Member Exchange) and innovative behavior of foodservice employees'. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 21(4), 175-191.
  20. Kwon, K. W., & Chong, Y. K. (2016). Moderating effect of education-hours on the relationship between knowledge of country-of-origin labeling and performance in hotel culinary staff. Culinary Science & Hospitality Research, 22(4), 37-50.
  21. Lee, C. O., Cho, E. H., & Cho, Y. B. (2013). Effects of the personality traits of hotel chefs and LMX on innovative behavior. The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 19(5), 59-75.
  22. Lee, H. R., Kim, M. S., & Lee, W. O. (2006). The effects of hotel organizational culture and individual value on customer orientation and motivation. Journal of Tourism and Leisure Research, 18(2), 151-170.
  23. Lee, J. T. (2016). Effect of organizational culture perceived by hotel culinary employees on innovative behavior: Centering on the mediator effect of self-efficacy. Food Service Industry Journal, 12(2), 21-38.
  24. Lee, S. H., & Lee, H. R. (2013). The effects of communication style of hotel superiors on organizational commitment: Focused on the moderating effect of rapport. Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, 16(5), 49-70.
  25. Lee, Y. T. (2017). A study on the effect of organizational culture on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in ICT Enterprises. Management Information Systems Review, 36(4), 149-166.
  26. Mun, M. Y., & Hwang, S. Y. (2016). Impact of nursing organizational culture types on innovative behavior and job embeddedness perceived by nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 22(4), 313-322.
  27. Nam, M. Y., Oh, M. G., & Yang, E. J. (2015). An effects of beauty industry workers' organizational culture type and rapport formation on job performance. Journal of the Korean Society of Design Culture, 21(3), 281-293.
  28. Oh, J. C., & Yang, T. S. (2012). Effects of creative leadership on job satisfaction and innovative behavior in service firms :a mediating and moderating role of rapport. Journal of the Korea Service Management Society, 13(2), 47-71.
  29. Park, D. J., & Jang, E. Y. (2016). An empirical study on the effects of innovative organizational culture on self leadership, creativity and innovative behavior. Korean Association of Business Education, 31(2), 211-229.
  30. Park, J. H. (2014). Effects of customer orientation on customer trust and satisfaction in hotel service: A mediating role of rapport. Tourism Research, 39(2), 41-64.
  31. Park, J. S. (2015). The effects of a hotel's organizational culture on its cooks' organizational commitment (Master's thesis). Gwangju University.
  32. Park, J. S., Lee, C. W., & Kim, J. G. (2017). The influence of a hotel cooks' organizational culture type on rapport formation and job performance. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 31(12), 117-130.
  33. Pettigrew, A. M. (1979). On studying organizational culture. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 570-580.
  34. Quinn, R. E., & Kimberly, J. R. (1984). Paradox, planning, and perseverance: Guidelines for managerial practice. Kimberly, J. R. & Quinn, R. E.(eds.), Managing organizational transitions, 295-313. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin.
  35. Quinn, R. E., & McGrath, M. R. (1985). The transformation of organizational culture : A competing values perspectives, in frost, P. J., Moore, L. F., Louis, M. R., Lundberg, C. C., and Marion, J. (eds.). Organizational culture, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 315-334.
  36. Scott, S. G. & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 580-607.
  37. Seol, K. J. (2009). The study on the effects of transformational leadership to innovative behavior of hotel employees. Tourism and Leisure Research, 21(3), 431-451.
  38. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.
  39. Tickle-Degnan, L. & Rosenthal, R. (1990). The nature of rapport and its nonverbal correlates. Psychological Inquiry, 1(4), 285-293.
  40. West, M. A., & Altink, W. M. (1996). Innovation at work: Individual, group, organizational, and socio-historical perspectives. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(1), 3-11.