DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Correlation between blood, physiological and behavioral parameters in beef calves under heat stress

  • Kim, Won Seob (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Jae-Sung (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Jeon, Seung Woo (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Peng, Dong Qiao (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Young Shin (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Bae, Mun Hee (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Jo, Yong Ho (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Hong Gu (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2017.07.22
  • Accepted : 2017.11.09
  • Published : 2018.06.01

Abstract

Objective: The performance, health, and behaviour of cattle can be strongly affected by climate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat stress on blood parameters, blood proteins (haptoglobin [Hp]; heat shock protein 70 [HSP70]), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and rumination time in Korean native beef calves. Methods: Thirty-two Korean native beef calves were randomly assigned to 8 groups with 4 animals per group. They were kept in environmental condition with temperature-humidity index (THI) ranging from 70.01 to 87.72 in temperature-humidity controlled chamber for 7 days. Results: Their HR, RT, and serum cortisol and HSP70 levels were increased (p<0.05) in high THI compared to those at low THI. But, serum Hp level was decreased (p<0.05) in high THI compared to these at low THI. In addition, HR, RT, serum cortisol and HSP70 were positively correlated with THI ($R^2=0.8368$, p<0.01; $R^2=0.6162$, p<0.01; $R^2=0.581$, p<0.01; $R^2=0.2241$, p = 0.0062, respectively). There was also positive association between HR and cortisol ($R^2=0.4697$, p<0.01). Similarly, RT and cortisol were positively associated ($R^2=0.4581$, p<0.01). But, THI and HR were negatively correlated with Hp ($R^2=0.2157$, p = 0.02; $R^2=0.3362$, p = 0.003). Hematology and metabolites results were different among treatment groups. Standing position was higher (p<0.05) in the high THI group compared to that in the low THI group. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that HR, RT, blood parameters (Cortisol, HSP70, Hp) and standing position are closely associated with heat stress. These parameters can be consolidated to develop THI chart for Korean native beef calves.

Keywords

Bovine;Climatic Chamber;Homeostasis;Metabolism

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

References

  1. St-Pierre N, Cobanov B, Schnitkey G. Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. J Dairy Sci 2003;86: E52-E77. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74040-5
  2. Zimbelman RB. Management strategies to reduce effects of thermal stress on lactating dairy cattle [PhD thesis]. Tucson, AZ, USA: The University of Arizona; 2008.
  3. Collier RJ, Hall LW, Rungruang S, Zimbleman RB. Quantifying heat stress and its impact on metabolism and performance. Paper for the 23rd Annual Ruminant Nutrition Symposium; 2012. pp. 74-83.
  4. Silanikove N. Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livest Prod Sci 2000;67:1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00162-7
  5. Roland L, Drillich M, Klein-Jobstl D, Iwersen M. Invited review: Influence of climatic conditions on the development, performance, and health of calves. J Dairy Sci 2016;99:2438-52. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9901
  6. O'Brien MD, Rhoads RP, Sanders SR, Duff GC, Baumgard LH. Metabolic adaptations to heat stress in growing cattle. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2010;38:86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2009.08.005
  7. Blackshaw JK, Blackshaw A. Heat stress in cattle and the effect of shade on production and behaviour: a review. Anim Prod Sci 1994;34:285-95. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9940285
  8. Buffington DE, Collazo-Arocho A, Canton GH, et al. Black globe-humidity index (BGHI) as comfort equation for dairy cows. Trans ASAE 1981;24:711-4. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.34325
  9. Roth Z, Meidan R, Shaham-Albalancy A, Braw-Tal R, Wolfenson D. Delayed effect of heat stress on steroid production in medium-sized and preovulatory bovine follicles. Reproduction 2001;121:745-51. https://doi.org/10.1530/rep.0.1210745
  10. Mader TL, Griffin D. Management of cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2015;31:247-58.
  11. Vizzotto EF, Fischer V, Thaler Neto A, et al. Access to shade changes behavioral and physiological attributes of dairy cows during the hot season in the subtropics. Animal 2015;9:1559-66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731115000877
  12. Bristow DJ, Holmes DS. Cortisol levels and anxiety-related behaviors in cattle. Physiol Behav 2007;90:626-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.11.015
  13. Mostl E, Palme R. Hormones as indicators of stress. Domest Anim Endocrionl 2002;23:67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-7240(02)00146-7
  14. Cooke RF, Bohnert DW, Cappellozza BI, Mueller CJ, Delcurto T. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. J Anim Sci 2012;90:3547-55. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4768
  15. Thun R, Kaufmann C, Janett F. The influence of restraint stress on reproductive hormones in the cow. Reprod Domest Anim 1998;33:255-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.1998.tb01354.x
  16. Bova TL, Chiavaccini L, Cline GF, et al. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2014;12:58. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-12-58
  17. Geburt K, Friedrich M, Piechotta M, Gauly M, Konig von Borstel U. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows - A comparison of beef and dairy cattle. Physiol Behav 2015;139:361-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.10.030
  18. Price EO, Smith VM, Thos J, Anderson GB. The effects of twinning and maternal experience on maternal-filial social relationships in confined beef cattle. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1986;15:137-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(86)90059-6
  19. Follenius M, Brandenberger G, Oyono S, Candas V. Cortisol as a sensitive index of heat-intolerance. Physiol Behav 1982;29: 509-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(82)90274-8
  20. Bernabucci U, Ronchi B, Lacetera N, Nardone A. Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season. J Dairy Sci 2002;85:2173-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74296-3
  21. Panteghini M. Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes. Clin Biochem 1990;23:311-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-9120(90)80062-N
  22. Abeni F, Calamari L, Stefanini L. Metabolic conditions of lactating Friesian cows during the hot season in the Po valley. 1. Blood indicators of heat stress. Int J Biometeorol 2007;52: 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-007-0098-3
  23. Shehab-El-Deen MAMM, Fadel MS, Van Soom A, et al. Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 2010;42:1119-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9534-1
  24. Leroy JL, Vanholder T, Van Knegsel AT, Garcia-Ispierto I, Bols PE. Nutrient prioritization in dairy cows early postpartum: mismatch between metabolism and fertility? Reprod Domest Anim 2008;43(Suppl 2):96-103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01148.x
  25. Lacetera N, Bernabucci U, Ronchi B, Scalia D, Nardone A. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows. Int J Biometeorol 2002;46: 33-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-001-0115-x
  26. Kamwanja LA, Chase CC, Gutierrez JA, et al. Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by breed and antioxidant status. J Anim Sci 1994;72:438-44. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.722438x
  27. Soper FF, Muscoplat CC, Johnson DW. In vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes: analysis of variation of lymphocyte blastogenic response in normal dairy cattle. Am J Vet Res 1978;39:1039-42.
  28. Elvinger F, Hansen PJ, Natzke RP. Modulation of function of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes by high temperature in vitro and in vivo. Am J Vet Res 1991;52: 1692-8.
  29. Gruys E, Toussaint MJM, Niewold TA, Koopmans SJ. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2005;6:1045-56.
  30. Hardardottir I, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Effects of endotoxin and cytokines on lipid metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 1994;5: 207-15. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041433-199405030-00008
  31. Petersen HH, Nielsen JP, Heegaard PMH. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry. Vet Res 2004;35:163-87. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004002
  32. Pineiro M, Alava M, Lampreave F. Acute phase proteins in different species: a review. 4th European Colloquium on Acute Phase Proteins: Segovia, Spain: Colloquium; 2003. pp. 77-82.
  33. de Jong PR, Schadenberg AW, Jansen NJ, Prakken BJ. Hsp70 and cardiac surgery: molecular chaperone and inflammatory regulator with compartmentalized effects. Cell Stress Chaperones 2009;14:117-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-008-0066-9
  34. Hecker JG, McGarvey M. Heat shock proteins as biomarkers for the rapid detection of brain and spinal cord ischemia: a review and comparison to other methods of detection in thoracic aneurysm repair. Cell Stress Chaperones 2011;16:119-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-010-0224-8
  35. Collier RJ, Stiening C, Pollard B, et al. Use of gene expression microarrays for evaluating environmental stress tolerance at the cellular level in cattle. J Anim Sci 2006;84:E1-E13. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8413_supplE1x
  36. Allen JD, Hall LW, Collier RJ, Smith JF. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress. J Dairy Sci 2015;98:118-27. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7704
  37. Anderson SD, Bradford BJ, Harner JP, et al. Effects of adjustable and stationary fans with misters on core body temperature and lying behavior of lactating dairy cows in a semiarid climate. J Dairy Sci 2013;96:4738-50. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6401
  38. Zahner M, Schrader L, Hauser R, et al. The influence of climatic conditions on physiological and behavioural parameters in dairy cows kept in open stables. Anim Sci 2004;78:139-48.
  39. Mitlohner F, Morrow J, Dailey J, et al. Shade and water misting effects on behavior, physiology, performance, and carcass traits of heat-stressed feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 2001;79:2327-35. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7992327x