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Substitution of soybean meal with detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal: Effects on performance, nutrient utilization, and meat edibility of growing pigs

  • Li, Yang ;
  • Chen, Ling ;
  • Zhang, Yuhui ;
  • Wu, Jianmei ;
  • Lin, Yan ;
  • Fang, Zhengfeng ;
  • Che, Lianqiang ;
  • Xu, Shengyu ;
  • Wu, De
  • Received : 2017.07.01
  • Accepted : 2017.11.01
  • Published : 2018.06.01

Abstract

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with different levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal (DJM) in growing pig diets on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and meat edibility. Methods: A total of 144 pigs with initial body weight of $20.47{\pm}1.44kg$, were randomly allocated to 6 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 4 pigs per replication for a period of 79 days. Six diets (DJM0, DJM15, DJM30, DJM45, DJM60, and DJM75) were formulated using DJM to replace 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75% of SBM. From d 37 to 42, feces and urine were total collected from six barrows in each treatment. At day 79, thirty-six pigs were slaughtered for sampling. The feed intake and weight gain were recorded, while the intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility and the content of residual phorbol esters in muscles were determined. Results: The results showed that increasing the replacement of SBM with DJM decreased the parameters including body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratio, weight and villus heights of duodenum, villus height and villus height/crypt depth of jejunum, digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase, and trypsin) activities, and nutrients digestibility (nitrogen deposition, digestibility of nitrogen, energy digestibility, and total nitrogen utilization) (linear, p<0.05; quadratic, p<0.05) and there was no significant difference among DJM0, DJM15, and DJM30 in all measured indices. The highest diarrhea morbidity was observed in DJM75 (p<0.05). Phorbol esters were not detected in pig muscle tissues. Conclusion: The DJM was a good protein source for pigs, and could be used to replace SBM up to 30% (diet phorbol esters concentration at 5.5 mg/kg) in growing pig diets with no detrimental impacts on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and meat edibility.

Keywords

Detoxified Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal;Enzyme Activities;Intestinal Morphology;Nutrient Utilization;Pigs;Soybean Meal

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Education of China