DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility and blood-biochemical parameters in Droughtmaster crossbred beef calves

  • Tao, Hui (Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture) ;
  • Guo, Feng (Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture) ;
  • Tu, Yan (Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture) ;
  • Si, Bing-Wen (Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture) ;
  • Xing, Yu-Chuan (Herbivorous Animal Husbandry Research Institute, Chongqing Academy of Animal Husbandry) ;
  • Huang, De-Jun (Herbivorous Animal Husbandry Research Institute, Chongqing Academy of Animal Husbandry) ;
  • Diao, Qi-Yu (Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture)
  • Received : 2017.07.13
  • Accepted : 2017.11.01
  • Published : 2018.06.01

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. Methods: Sixty Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control group remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28 d (4 wk), 42 d (6 wk), 56 d (8 wk), and 70 d (10 wk) of age were sent to group 4 wk, group 6 wk, group 8 wk, and group 10 wk, respectively, and then were fed on milk replacer till the 22-week age. Feed intake and body weight and size were record and blood metabolites were measured. And 24 calves of them (6 in each group) were picked randomly for digestion and metabolism trail. Feed, feces and urine sample were taken and measured. Results: Dry matter intake of calves in group 4 wk was significantly lower than those in the remaining groups from wk 17 to 22 (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of the calves was higher in groups 4 wk and 6 wk than those in groups 8 wk and 10 wk from 11 to 13 wk (p<0.05), and calves had higher feed efficiency in group 4 wk, group 6 wk, and group 8 wk than those in group 10 wk from wk 14 to wk 22. Calves in group 4 wk and 6 wk had lower body weight than group 8 wk and group 10 wk and control group at 10-week age (p<0.05) and 13-week age (p<0.05), and calves in group 6 wk had no significant difference in body weight with control group, group 8 wk and 10 wk (p>0.05) but was higher than that of group 4 wk (p<0.05). Calves in group 6 wk had higher final body weight and total gain than group 4 wk, but no difference of total gain with that of groups 8 wk, 10 wk, and control group. And weaning calves at 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from wk 14 to wk 22, and higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility at 21 wk. Conclusion: It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.

Keywords

Weaning Age;Growth Performance;Feed Efficiency;Beef Calves

Acknowledgement

Grant : Young Herbivorous Livestock Rearing Technology Research in Southern China

Supported by : Ministry of Agriculture

References

  1. Zezeski AL, McCracken VL, Poole RK, et al. Metabolic and reproductive characteristics of replacement beef heifers subjected to an early-weaning regimen involving high-concentrate feeding. Animal 2017;11:820-5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116002123
  2. Marshall CM, Walker AP. Comparison of a short method for kjeldahl digestion using a trace of selenium as catalyst, with other methods. J Sci Food Agric 1978;87:3429-50.
  3. Blanco M, Ripoll G, Alberti P, et al. Effect of early weaning on performance, carcass and meat quality of spring-born bull calves raised in dry mountain areas. Livest Sci 2008;115:226-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.07.012
  4. Wertz AE, Berger LL, Walker PM, et al. Early-weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of 12th-rib fat, marbling score, and feed efficiency among Angus and Wagyu heifers. J Anim Sci 2002;80:28-37. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80128x
  5. Myers SE, Faulkner DB, Ireland FA, Parrett DF. Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. J Anim Sci 1999;77:323-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.772323x
  6. Vaz RZ, Lobato J. Effects of the weaning age of calves on somatic development and on reproductive performance of beef cows. Rev Bras Zootec 2010;39:1058-67. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000500016
  7. Odhiambo JF, Rhinehart JD, Helmondollar R, et al. Effect of weaning regimen on energy profiles and reproductive performance of beef cows. J Anim Sci 2009;87:2428-36. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1138
  8. Kehoe SI, Dechow CD, Heinrichs AJ. Effects of weaning age and milk feeding frequency on dairy calf growth, health and rumen parameters. Livest Sci 2007;110:267-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.11.007
  9. Waterman RC, Geary TW, Paterson JA, Lipsey RJ. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: II. Development of replacement heifers weaned at 80 or 215 d of age. Livest Sci 2012;148:36-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2012.04.020
  10. Lesmeister KE, Heinrichs AJ. Effects of corn processing on growth characteristics, rumen development, and rumen parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:3439-50. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73479-7
  11. Horwitz W, Latimer G. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: AOAC International;2006.
  12. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  13. Goering HK, Van Soest PJ. Forage fiber analyses. In: Apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications. Washington DC, USA: Agriculture handbook; 1970.
  14. Jasper J, Weary DM. Effects of ad libitum milk intake on dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2002;85:3054-58. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74391-9
  15. Wolcott ML, Graser HU, Johnston DJ. Effects of early weaning on growth, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Shorthorn cattle. Anim Prod Sci 2010;50:315-21. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN09153
  16. Heinrichs AJ, Rogers GW, Cooper JB. Predicting body weight and wither height in Holstein heifers using body measurements. J Dairy Sci 1992;75:3576-81. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78134-X
  17. Heinrichs AJ, Erb HN, Rogers GW, Cooper JB, Jones CM. Variability in Holstein heifer heart-girth measurements and comparison of prediction equations for live weight. Prev Vet Med 2007;78:333-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.11.002
  18. Wickersham E, Schultz L. Influence of age at first breeding on growth, reproduction, and production of well-fed Holstein Heifers. J Dairy Sci 1963;46:544-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(63)89092-X
  19. Terre M, Devant M, Bach A. Effect of level of milk replacer fed to Holstein calves on performance during the preweaning period and pellet. Livest Sci 2007;110:82-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.10.001
  20. Seo S, Tedeschi LO, Schwab CG, Garthwaite BD, Fox DG. Evaluation of the passage rate equations in the 2001 Dairy NRC model. J Dairy Sci 2006;89:2327-42. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72304-9
  21. Hill TM, Bateman HN, Aldrich JM, Schlotterbeck RL. Effect of milk replacer program on digestion of nutrients in dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:1105-15. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2458
  22. Quigley JR, Caldwell LA, Sinks GD, Heitmann RN. Changes in blood glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and ketones in response to weaning and feed intake in young calves. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:250-7. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78167-8
  23. Chai JM, Ma T, Wang HC, et al. Effect of early weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum parameters of lambs. Anim Prod Sci 2017;57:110-5. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15079
  24. Hugi D, Blum JW. Changes of blood metabolites and hormones in breeding calves associated with weaning. Transbound Emerg Dis 1997;44:99-108.
  25. Khan MA, Lee HJ, Lee WS, et al. Structural growth, rumen development, and metabolic and immune responses of Holstein male calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:3376-87. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0104
  26. Paez Lama S, Grilli D, Egea V, et al. Rumen development and blood metabolites of Criollo kids under two different rearing systems. Livest Sci 2014;167:171-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.06.018
  27. Cheema AT, Bhatti SA, Akbar G, et al. Effect of weaning age and milk feeding level on pre- and post-weaning growth performance of Sahiwal calves. Anim Prod Sci 2016;58:314-21.
  28. Blome RM, Drackley JK, McKeith FK, Hutjens MF, McCoy GC. Growth, nutrient utilization, and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein. J Anim Sci 2003;81:1641-55. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8161641x
  29. Khan MA, Lee HJ, Lee WS, et al. Pre- and postweaning performance of holstein female calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:876-85. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71571-0
  30. Bahrami-yekdangi M, Ghorbani GR, Khorvash M, Khan MA, Ghaffari MH. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites. J Anim Sci 2016;94:718-25.
  31. Radostits O, Gay C, Hinchcliff K, Constable P. Veterinary medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs goats and horses. London, UK: W.B. Saunders Ltd; 2007.