- Volume 45 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Pre-slaughter stress, animal welfare, and its implication on meat quality
- Choe, Jeehwan (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University)
- Received : 2018.01.17
- Accepted : 2018.03.08
- Published : 2018.03.31
Meat quality includes technological quality attributes, consumer acceptance, and credence characteristics. In terms of credence characteristics, animal welfare is one of the most interesting topics to both consumers and the livestock industry. Consumers prefer meat produced from livestock that has been raised in low stress and ecofriendly environments. The livestock industry cares about animal welfare to meet the requirements of consumers. Animal welfare is closely associated with the stress and physiological response of livestock to stress. Moreover, stress just before slaughter (i.e., pre-slaughter stress) has negative effects on not only animal welfare but also ultimately on meat quality. It is well-documented that pre-slaughter stress can influence ante- and post-mortem biological changes of the muscles, especially their metabolic properties and metabolites. The metabolic properties and metabolites contents also can modulate the postmortem changes of the muscles. Conversion of muscles to meat during postmortem is a very important process because it determines ultimately the meat quality. Thus, understanding pre-slaughter stress and physiological responses to stress in farm animals is important for animal welfare and meat quality. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of stress, physiological responses to stress, measurement of stress, and the relationships between stress indices and meat quality traits.
Supported by : Korea University
- Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mills EW. 2001. Principles of Meat Science. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa, USA.
- Becerril-Herrera M, Alonso-Spilsbury M, Trujillo-Ortega ME, Guerrero-Legarreta I, Ramirez-Necoechea R, Roldan-Santiago P, Perez-Sato M, Soni-Guillermo E, Mota-Rojas D. 2010. Changes in blood constituents of swine transported for 8 to 16 h to an abattoir. Meat Science 86:945-948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.07.021
- Brown S N, Warriss PD, Nute GR, Edwards J E, Knowles TG. 1998. Meat quality in p igs subjected to minimal preslaughter stress. Meat Science 49:257-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00146-0
- Choe JH, Choi MH, Ryu YC, Lim KS, Lee EA, Kang JH, Hong KC, Lee SK, Kim YT, Moon SS, Lee KW, Rhee MS, Kim BC. 2015. Correlations among various blood parameters at exsanguination and their relationships to pork quality traits. Animal Production Science 55:672-679. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13424
- Choe JH, Choi YM, Lee SH, Nam YJ, Jung YC, Park HC, Kim YY, Kim BC. 2009. The relation of blood glucose level to muscle fiber characteristics and pork quality traits. Meat Science 83:62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.03.011
- Choe JH, Kim BC. 2014. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Meat Science 97:137-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.01.024
- Choi YM, Jung KC, Choe JH, Kim BC. 2012. Effects of muscle cortisol concentration on muscle fiber characteristics, pork quality, and sensory quality of cooked pork. Meat Science 91:490-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.03.003
- Chrousos GP. 2009. Stress and disorders of the stress system. Nature Review Endocrinology 5:374-381. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2009.106
- D'Souza DN, Dunshea FR, Warner RD, Leury BJ. 1998a. The effect of handling pre-slaughter and carcass processing rate post-slaughter on pork quality. Meat Science 50:429-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00055-2
- D'Souza DN, Warner RD, Dunshea FR, Leury BJ. 1998b. Effect of on-farm and pre-slaughter handling of pigs on meat quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49:1021-1025. https://doi.org/10.1071/A98010
- Edwards LN, Engle TE, Correa JA, Paradis MA, Grandin T, Anderson DB. 2010a. The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in slaughter pigs. Meat Science 85:435-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.012
- Edwards LN, Grandin T, Engle TE, Porter SP, Ritter MJ, Sosnicki AA, Anderson DB. 2010b. Use of exsanguination blood lactate to assess the quality of pre-slaughter pig handling. Meat Science 86:384-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.022
- Faucitano L, Saucier L, Correa JA, Methot S, Giguere A, Foury A, Mormede P, Bergeron R. 2006. Effect of feed texture, meal frequency and pre-slaughter fasting on carcass and meat quality, and urinary cortisol in pigs. Meat Science 74:697-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.05.023
- Foury A, Devillers N, Sanchez MP, Griffon H, Le Roy P, Mormede P. 2005. Stress hormones, carcass composition and meat quality in Large White x Duroc pigs. Meat Science 69:703-707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.11.002
- Fraser D, Ritchie JS, Fraser AF. 1975. The term "stress" in a veterinary context. British Veterinary Journal 131:653-662. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1935(17)35136-9
- Glitsch K. 2000. Consumer perceptions of fresh meat quality: Cross-national comparison. British Food Journal 102:107-194.
- Hambrecht E, Eissen JJ, Newman DJ, Smits CHM, den Hartog LA, Verstegen MWA. 2005a. Negative effects of stress immediately before slaughter on pork quality are aggravated by suboptimal transport and lairage conditions. Journal of Animal Science 83:440-448. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.832440x
- Hambrecht E, Eissen JJ, Newman DJ, Smits CHM, Vertegen MWA, den Hartog LA. 2005b. Preslaughter handling effects on pork quality and glycolytic potential in two muscles differing in fiber type composition. Journal of Animal Science 83:900-907. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.834900x
- Hambrecht E, Eissen JJ, Nooijen RIJ, Ducro BJ, Smits CMH, den Hartog LA, Verstegen MWA. 2004. Preslaughter stress and muscle energy largely determine pork quality at two commercial processing plants. Journal of Animal Science 82:1401-1409. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251401x
- Hewson CJ. 2003. What is animal welfare? Common definitions and their practical consequences. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 44:496-499.
- Johnson EO, Kamilaris TC, Chrousos GP, Gold PW. 1992. Mechanisms of stress: A dynamic overview of hormonal and behavioral homeostasis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review 16:115-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(05)80175-7
- Kalra S, Einarson A, Karaskov T, Uum SV, Koren G. 2007. The relationship between stress and hair cortisol in healthy pregnant women. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30:103-107.
- Kanitz E, Otten W, Tuchscherer M. 2005. Central and peripheral effects of repeated noise stress on hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical axis in pigs. Livestock Production Science 94:213-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.12.002
- Karlsson AH, Klont RE, Fernandez X. 1999. Skeletal muscle fibres as factors for pork quality. Livestock Production Science 60:255-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00098-6
- Kim SH, Kim HJ, Lee HJ, Yong HI, Jo C, Nam KC, Jung S. 2016 The effect of aging on the quality of Semimembranosus muscle from Hanwoo. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 43:61-71. https://doi.org/10.7744/kjoas.20160008
- Koknaroglu H, Akunal T. 2013. Animal welfare: An animal science approach. Meat Science 95:821-827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.030
- Kyrou I, Tsigos C. 2009. Stress hormones: Physiological stress and regulation of metabolism. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 9:787-793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2009.08.007
- Lee SH, Choe JH, Choi YM, Jung KC, Hong KC, Lee SK, Ryu YC, Kim BC. 2012. The influence of pork quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics on the eating quality of pork from various breeds. Meat Science 90:284-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.07.012
- Li X, Yang X, Shan B, Shi J, Xia D, Wegner J, Zhao R. 2009. Meat quality is associated with muscle metabolic status but not contractile myofiber type composition in premature pigs. Meat Science 81:218-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.07.022
- Minton JE. 1994. Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system in models of acute stress in domestic farm animals. Journal of Animal Science 72:1891-1898. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.7271891x
Mota-Rojas D, Becerril-Herrera M, Roldan-Santiago P, Alonso-Spilsbury M, Flores-Peinado S, Ramirez-Necoechea R, Ramirez-Telles JA, Mora-Medina P, Perez M, Molina E, Soni E, Trujillo-Ortega ME. 2012. Effects of long distance transportation and
$CO_2$stunning on critical blood values in pigs. Meat Science 90:893-898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.027
- Ranabir S, Reetu K. 2011. Stress and hormones. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 15:18-22. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.77573
- Romero LM, Romero RC. 2002. Corticosterone responses in wild birds: The importance of rapid initial sampling. Condor 104:129-135. https://doi.org/10.1650/0010-5422(2002)104[0129:CRIWBT]2.0.CO;2
- Russell E, Koren G, Rieder M, van Uum S. 2012. Hair cortisol as a biological marker of chronic stress: Current status, future directions and unanswered questions. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:589-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.09.009
- Salajpal K, Dikic M, Karolyi D, Sinjeri Z, Liker B, Kostelic A, Juric I. 2005. Blood serum metabolites and meat quality in crossbred pigs experiencing different lairage time. Italian Journal of Animal Science 4 (suppl.3):119-121. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.119
- Schaefer AL, Jones SDM, Stanley RW. 1997. The use of electrolyte solutions for reducing transport stress. Journal of Animal Science 75:258-265. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.751258x
- Scheriff MJ, Krebs CJ, Boonstra R. 2010. Assessing stress in animal populations: Do fecal and plasma glucocorticoids tell the same story. General and Comparative Endocrinology 166:614-619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.12.017
- Shaw FD, Trout GR, McPhee CP. 1995. Plasma and muscle cortisol measurements as indicators of meat quality and stress in pigs. Meat Science 39:237-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(94)P1824-F
- Terlouw C. 2005. Stress reactions at slaughter and meat quality in pigs: genetic background and prior experience a brief review of recent findings. Livestock Production Science 94:125-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.032
- Terlouw EMC, Arnould C, Auperin B, Berri C, Bihan-Duval ELe, Deiss V, Lefevre F, Lensink BJ, Mounier L. 2008. Preslaughter conditions, animal stress and welfare: Current status and possible future research. Animal 2:1501-1517.
- van der Wal PG, Engel B, Hulsegge B. 1997. Causes for variation in pork quality. Meat Science 46:319-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00026-0
- van der Wal PG, Engel B, Reimert HGM. 1999. The effects of stress, applied immediately before stunning, on pork quality. Meat Science 53:101-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00039-X
- Warner RD, Greenwood PL, Pethick DW, Ferguson DM. 2010. Genetic and environmental effects on meat quality. Meat Science 86:171-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.042
- Warriss PD, Brown SN, Adams SJM, Corlett IK. 1994. Relationships between subjective and objective assessments of stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs. Meat Science 38:329-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(94)90121-X
- Warriss PD. 2010. Meat science-an introductory text (2nd ed.). CABI, MA, USA.