- Volume 2 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
The control of an upper extremity exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation: An active force control scheme approach
- Majeed, Anwar P.P. Abdul (Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang) ;
- Taha, Zahari (Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang) ;
- Abdullah, Muhammad Amirul (Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang) ;
- Azmi, Kamil Zakwan Mohd (Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang) ;
- Zakaria, Muhammad Aizzat (Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang)
- Received : 2018.01.31
- Accepted : 2018.12.13
- Published : 2018.09.25
This study evaluates the efficacy of a class robust control scheme namely active force control in performing a joint based trajectory tracking of an upper limb exoskeleton in rehabilitating the elbow joint. The plant of the exoskeleton system is obtained via system identification method whilst the PD gains were tuned heuristically. The estimated inertial parameter that enables the AFC disturbance rejection effect is attained by means of a non-nature based metaheuristic optimisation technique known as simulated Kalman filter (SKF). It was demonstrated from the present investigation that the proposed PDAFC scheme outperformed the classical PD algorithm in tracking the prescribed trajectory both in the presence and without the presence of disturbance attributed by the mannequin limb weights (1 kg and 1.5 kg) that mimics the weight of actual human limb weight. Therefore, it is apparent from the results obtained from the present study that the proposed control scheme, i.e., PDAFC is suitable for the application of exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation.
rehabilitation;upper limb exosckeleton;active force control;simulated kalman filter
Supported by : Universiti Malaysia Pahang
- Craig, J.J. (2005), Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Hashemi-Dehkordi, S.M., Abu-Bakar, A.R. and Mailah, M. (2014), "Stability analysis of a linear frictioninduced vibration model and its prevention using active force control", Adv. Mech. Eng., 6, 251594. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/251594
- Abdul Majeed, A.P.P., Taha, Z., Mohd Khairuddin, I., Wong, M.Y., Abdullah, M.A. and Mohd Razman, M. A. (2017), "The control of an upper-limb exoskeleton by means of a particle swarm optimized active force control for motor recovery", Proceedings of the International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, December.
- Carignan, C., Liszka, M. and Roderick, S. (2005), "Design of an arm exoskeleton with scapula motion for shoulder rehabilitation", Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., July.
- Hewit, J.R. and Burdess, J.S. (1981), "Fast dynamic decoupled control for robotics, using active force control", Mech. Machine Theory, 16(5), 535-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/0094-114X(81)90025-2
- Ibrahim, Z., Aziz, N.H.A., Aziz, N.A.A., Razali, S., Shapiai, M.I., Nawawi, S.W. and Mohamad, M.S. (2015), "A Kalman filter approach for solving unimodal optimization problems", ICIC Express Lett., 9(12), 3415-3422.
- Ismail, Z. and Varatharajoo, R. (2016), "Satellite cascade attitude control via fuzzy PD controller with active force control under momentum dumping", IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 152(1), 12030.
- Jahanabadi, H., Mailah, M., Zain, M.Z.M. and Hooi, H.M. (2011), "Active force with fuzzy logic control of a two-link arm driven by pneumatic artificial muscles", J. Bionic Eng., 8(4), 474-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6529(11)60053-X
- Kawasaki, H., Ito, S., Ishigure, Y., Nishimoto, Y., Aoki, T., Mouri, T., Sakeda, H. and Abe, M. (2007), "Development of a hand motion assist robot for rehabilitation therapy by patient self-motion control", Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June.
- Kwek, L.C., Wong, E.K., Loo, C.K. and Rao, M.V.C. (2003), "Application of active force control and iterative learning in a 5-link biped robot", J. Intell. Robot. Syst., 37(2), 143-162. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024187206507
- Lo, H.S. and Xie, S.Q. (2012), "Exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects", Med. Eng. Phys., 34(3), 261-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.10.004
- Loureiro, R.V., Harwin, W.S., Nagai, K. and Johnson, M. (2011), "Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: A technology push", Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 49(10), 1103-1118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-011-0797-0
- Mailah, M., Hooi, H.M., Kazi, S. and Jahanabadi, H. (2012), "Practical active force control with iterative learning scheme applied to a pneumatic artificial muscle actuated robotic arm", Int. J. Mech., 6(1), 88-96.
- Mailah, M., Jahanabadi, H., Zain, M.Z.M. and Priyandoko, G. (2009), "Modelling and control of a humanlike arm incorporating muscle models", Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part C J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 223(7), 1569-1577. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544062JMES1289
- Mailah, M., Yee, W.M. and Jamaluddin, H. (2002), "Intelligent active force control of a robotic arm using genetic algorithm", Jurnal Mekanikal, 13(1).
- Majeed, A.P.P.A., Taha, Z., Abidin, A.F.Z., Zakaria, M.A., Khairuddina, I.M., Razman, M.A.M. and Mohamed, Z. (2017), "The control of a lower limb exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation: A hybrid active force control approach", Proc. Comput. Sci., 105, 183-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.01.204
- Muhammad, B., Ibrahim, Z., Ghazali, K.H., Mohd Azmi, K.Z., Ab Aziz, N.A., Abd Aziz, N.H. and Mohamad, M.S. (2015), "A new hybrid simulated Kalman filter and particle swarm optimization for continuous numerical optimization problems", ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 10(22), 17171-17176.
- Nazifah, S.N., Azmi, I.K., Hamidon, B.B., Looi, I., Zariah, A.A. and Hanip, M.R. (2012), "National stroke registry (NSR): Terengganu and Seberang Jaya experience", Med. J. Malaysia, 67(3), 302-304.
- Noshadi, A., Mailah, M. and Zolfagharian, A. (2012), "Intelligent active force control of a 3-RRR parallel manipulator incorporating fuzzy resolved acceleration control", Appl. Math. Model., 36(6), 2370-2383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2011.08.033
- Pi, Y. and Wang, X. (2011), "Trajectory tracking control of a 6-DOF hydraulic parallel robot manipulator with uncertain load disturbances", Control Eng. Pract., 19(2), 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2010.11.006
- Rahman, M.H., Kittel-Ouimet, T., Saad, M., Kenne, J.P. and Archambault, P.S. (2012), "Development and control of a robotic exoskeleton for shoulder, elbow and forearm movement assistance", Appl. Bionic. Biomech., 9(3), 275-292. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/956310
- Rahman, M.H., Kittel-Ouimet, T., Saad, M., Kenne, J.P. and Archambault, P.S. (2011), "Robot assisted rehabilitation for elbow and forearm movements", Int. J. Biomechatron. Biomed. Robot., 1(4), 206-218. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBBR.2011.043748
- Rahman, M.H., Saad, M., Kenne, J.P. and Archambault, P.S. (2010), "Exoskeleton robot for rehabilitation of elbow and forearm movements", Proceedings of the 18th Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation (MED), Marrakech, Morocco, June.
- Rahman, M.H., Saad, M., Kenne, J.P. and Archambault, P.S. (2012), "Nonlinear sliding mode control implementation of an upper limb exoskeleton robot to provide passive rehabilitation therapy", Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October.
- Taha, Z., Majeed, A.P.A., Abidin, A.F.Z., Ali, M.A.H., Khairuddin, I.M., Deboucha, A. and Tze, M.Y.W.P. (2017), "A hybrid active force control of a lower limb exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation", Biomed. Eng. Biomedizinische Technik.
- Taha, Z., Majeed, A.P.P.A., Abdullah, M.A., Khairuddin, I.M., Zakaria, M.A. and Hassan, M.H.A. (2017), "The identification and control of an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery", Proceedings of the Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2017, Melaka, Malaysia, March.
- Tahmasebi, M., Rahman, R.A., Mailah, M. and Gohari, M. (2012), "Sprayer boom active suspension using intelligent active force control", Int. J. Mech. Aerosp. Indust. Mechatron. Manufact. Eng., 6, 1277-1281.
- Tahmasebi, M., Rahman, R.A., Mailah, M. and Gohari, M. (2013a), "Roll movement control of a spray boom structure using active force control with artificial neural network strategy", J. Low Frequency Noise Vib. Active Control, 32(3), 189-202. https://doi.org/10.1260/0263-09184.108.40.206
- Tahmasebi, M., Rahman, R. A., Mailah, M. and Gohari, M. (2013b), "Roll movement control of a spray boom structure using active force control with artificial neural network strategy", J. Low Frequency Noise Vib. Active Control, 32(3), 189-201. https://doi.org/10.1260/0263-09220.127.116.11
- Tavakolpour Saleh, A.R. and Mailah, M. (2012), "Control of resonance phenomenon in flexible structures via active support", J. Sound Vib., 331(15), 3451-3465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2012.03.022
- Varatharajoo, R., Wooi, C.T. and Mailah, M. (2011), "Two degree-of-freedom spacecraft attitude controller", Adv. Sp. Res., 47(4), 685-689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.10.011
- Volpe, B.T., Ferraro, M., Krebs, H.I. and Hogan, N. (2002), "Robotics in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with stroke", Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 4(4), 270-276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-002-0005-7
- Xu, G., Song, A. and Li, H. (2011), "Control system design for an upper-limb rehabilitation robot", Adv. Robot., 25(1-2), 229-251. https://doi.org/10.1163/016918610X538561