Simultaneous Application of Chemicals and Temperature for the Effective Control of Trouble Seaweed Ulva australis

구멍갈파래(Ulva australis) 생육제어 효과 증진을 위한 화합물 및 고온의 복합처리

  • Kim, Jin-Seog (Research Center for Eco-Friendly New Materials, Bio & Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology) ;
  • Kim, Bo Gwan (Research Center for Eco-Friendly New Materials, Bio & Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology) ;
  • Kwak, Hwa Sook (Research Center for Eco-Friendly New Materials, Bio & Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology)
  • 김진석 (한국화학연구원 의약바이오연구본부 친환경신물질연구센터) ;
  • 김보관 (한국화학연구원 의약바이오연구본부 친환경신물질연구센터) ;
  • 곽화숙 (한국화학연구원 의약바이오연구본부 친환경신물질연구센터)
  • Received : 2018.01.19
  • Accepted : 2018.03.12
  • Published : 2018.03.31


The seaweed Ulva spp., which is frequently bloomed in coastal areas, have negatively affected on marine ecosystem and industrial activities. Therefore, many researches have been conducted to solve this problem in the worldwide. In this study, we carried out several experiments to develop the methods for effectively controlling Ulva growth through an alone or mixture application of chemical and temperature. Three chemical mixtures ($H_2O_2$+N-vanillylnonanamide; $H_2O_2$+nonanoic acid; $H_2O_2$+sodium citrate), those had a synergistic effect to the death of Ulva australis (ULAUS), were found out. On the other hand, the death of ULAUS was significantly enhanced and accelerated as some chemicals were briefly treated with warm water of $40^{\circ}C$ rather than $25^{\circ}C$, showing that peracetic acid 100 ppm, sodium percarbonate 100 ppm, and hydrogen peroxide 30 ppm has a better activity than that of sodium chlorite 200 ppm and menadione sodium bisulfite 4 ppm. In addition, a strong synergistic effect to the death of ULAUS thallus was also observed when the sodium citrate 1,000 ppm (pH 3.0) or acetic acid 200 ppm (pH 3.5) solution prepared in f/2 medium were treated in a short time at $40^{\circ}C$. However, an additive effect was only appeared as pH values of their solutions were increased to 8.0. Taken together, It seemed that our results could be developed as one of an eco-friendly practical measures useful for alleviating Ulva bloom in the future.


Chemical control;Death of thallus;Synergistic effect;Ulva pertusa (australis);Warm water treatment


Grant : Eco-friendly control methods for preventing the algal bloom of Ulva spp. in the seashore

Supported by : Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT)


  1. Colby, S.R. 1967. Calculating synergistic and antagonistic responses of herbicide combinations. Weeds 15:20-22.
  2. Ding, L.P., Fei, X.G., Lu, Q.Q., Deng, T.Y. and Lian, S.X. 2009. The possibility analysis of habitats, origin and reappearance of bloom green alga (Enteromorpha prolifera) on inshore of western Yellow Sea. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 27:421-424.
  3. Gao, G., Clare, A.S., Rose, C. and Caldwell, G.S. 2017. Eutrophication and warming-driven green tides (Ulva rigida) are predicted to increase under future climate change scenarios. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114:439-447.
  4. Gao, S., Chen, X., Yi, Q., Wang, G., Pan, G., et al. 2010. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with fromation of sporangia by fragmentation. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8571.
  5. Geng, H., Yan, T., Zhou, M. and Liu, Q. 2015. Comparative study of the germination of Ulva prolifera gametes on various substrates. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 163:89-95.
  6. Huo, Y., Hua, L., Wu, H., Zhang, J., Cui, J., et al. 2014. Abundance and distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules associated with a green tide in the southern coast of the Yellow sea. Harmful Algae 39:357-364.
  7. Kang, P.J. and Nam, K.W. 2016. Effects of temperature and irradiance on growth of Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta). Kor. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 49(6):845-848. (In Korean)
  8. Kim, J.S., Kwak, H.S. and Kim, B.G. 2017. Effects of various physical and chemical factors on the death of trouble seaweed Ulva australis. Weed Turf. Sci. 6(3):222-234. (In Korean)
  9. Li, J., Sun, L., Yu, Z.M. and Song, X.X. 2017. Investigation on the efficiency of a silicone antifouling coating in controlling the adhesion and germination of Ulva prolifera micro-propagules on rafts. Sci. China Earth Sci. 60:391-396.
  10. Lin, A., Shen, S., Wang, J. and Yan, B. 2008. Reproduction diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 50(5):622-629.
  11. Lin, A.P., Wang, C., Pan, G.H., Song, L.Y., Gao, S., et al. 2011. Diluted seawater promoted the green tide of Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta, Ulvales). Physiol. Res. 59:295-304.
  12. Silva, P.H.D.P., Mcbride, S., De Nys, R. and Paul, N.A. 2008. Integrating filamentous 'green tide' algae into tropical pond-based aquaculture. Aquaculture 284:74-80.
  13. Song, Y.C., Kim S.R., Park S.J., Kang G.M. and Oh S.S. 2016. A study on the causes of Ulva pertusa Kjellman large breeding in Bangdu bay of Jeju island. Report of JIHE 27:57-69. (In Korean)
  14. Yamochi, S. 2013. Effects of dessication and salinity on the outbreak of a green tide of Ulva pertusa in a created salt marsh along the coast of Osaka Bay, Japan. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 116:21-28.
  15. Zhang, J., Huo, Y., Yu, K., Chen, Q., He, Q., et al. 2013. Growth characteristics and reproductive capability of green tide algae in Rudong coast, China. J. Appl. Phycol. 25:795-803.