A Meta Analysis on Effects of Flipped Learning in Korea

국내 플립러닝의 학습효과에 관한 메타분석

  • Cho, Boram (Department of Educational Technology, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Lee, Jeongmin (Department of Educational Technology, Ewha Womans University)
  • 조보람 (이화여자대학교 교육공학과) ;
  • 이정민 (이화여자대학교 교육공학과)
  • Received : 2018.01.26
  • Accepted : 2018.03.20
  • Published : 2018.03.28


The purpose of this study is to verify the learning effect of domestic flipped learning in meta - analysis. We collected a total of 95 studies on flipped learning effectiveness published in Korea by 2017, of which 59 are dissertations and thesis and 36 are academic papers. The results were analyzed using CMA program. First, the learning effect of flipped learning was .58, which showed that the learning effect was higher than the lecture class. Second, the effect size of cognitive, affirmative, and interpersonal domains showed significant effects of flipped learning in all three domains. Third, the learning effect of flipped learning is influenced by the type of publishing, school type, core subject, when the type of publication are dissertation and thesis, when the type of school is high school. Based on the results, this study suggested implications for the design and implementation of flipped learning in Korea.


Flipped learning;Meta analysis;Effect size;Moderator variable;Learning effect


Supported by : Ewha Womans University


  1. S. H. Son & S. H. Kim. Exploration of the Flipped learning Success Strategy in the School Education : Focused on the teacher and learner's learning process. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction. 16(11), 1287-1310. DOI: 10.22251/jlcci.2016.16.11.1287
  2. J. Y. Lee, Y. H. Kim & Y. B. Kim. (2014). A Study on Application of Learner-Centered Flipped Learning Model. Journal of Educational Technology. 30(2), 163-191. DOI : 10.17232/kset.30.2.163
  3. Kim, S., Jin, M. & Lim, K. Y. (2015). Research trends on flipped learning in South Korea. In Ed-Media: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology. 2015(1), 1251-1255.
  4. M. H. Kang & S. H. Yoon. (2016). Analysis on Pre-service Teachers' Stage of Concerns about Flipped Learning: An Application of CBAM. Teacher Education Research, 55(4), 427-440.
  5. W. Choi. (2017). Development of an Instructional Design Model for Groundwork Instruction in Flipped Learning. Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 1-34. DOI: 10.17232/kset.33.1.001
  6. Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
  7. Esther, Park & J. H. Park. (2016). A meta-analysis on flipped learning: Conditions for successful application and future research direction. Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society. 27(1), 169-178. DOI: 10.7465/jkdi.2016.27.1.169
  8. M. O. Seo. (2016). The Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom. Journal of Educational Technology. 32(4), 707-741. DOI: 10.17232/kset.32.4.707
  9. J. Y. Jung. (20107). The Effect of the Flipped Learning on Self-directed and Self-regulation Competence of Pre-teacher Students. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction. 17(4), 215-235. DOI: 10.22251/jlcci.2017.17.4.215
  10. J. Y. Song & K. P. Hong. (2016). A Case Study on the Application of Flipped Learning to Teaching Profession Courses. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 16(11), 851-877. DOI: 10.22251/jlcci.2016.16.11.851
  11. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higins, J. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
  12. Lage, M. J., Plate, G.J., & Treglia, M. (2000). The internet and the inverted classroom. The Journal of Economic Education. 27(1), 26-37. DOI: 10.2307/1183335
  13. M. K. Lee, M. K. Seong, J. Y. Jeong, S. M. Kim, J. H. Kin, H. H. An, H. K. Park, P. T. Travers, S. H. Byung, K. H. Lee, S. C. Kim, J. H. Cha, E. J. Kim, K. Y. Kim, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Kim, C. S. Kim. (2016). Understand and practice flipped learning. Seoul: Education Science History.
  14. K. B. Park. (2014). Exploration of the possibility of Flipped Learning in social studies. Social Studies Education, 53(3), 107-120.
  15. M. K. Kim & C. W. Shin. (2016). The Effects of Flipped Classroom on Middle School Learners' English Academic Achievement and Affective Domains. Secondary Education Studies, 64(2), 289-314. DOI: 10.25152/ser.2016.64.2.289
  16. B. K. Kim (2014). Development of Flipped Classroom Model for Teaching Profession Courses. The Journal of Educational Research, 12(2), 25-56.
  17. Frydenberg, M. (2013). Flipping excel. Information Systems Education Journal, 11(1), 63-73.
  18. S. H. Choi, S. H. Um, & E. K. Kim (2016). Flipped learning Upside down Revolution in English Classroom. Seoul: hungsil Life.
  19. Stone, B. B. (2012). Flip your classroom to increase active learning and student engagement. In proceedings form 28th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  20. M.. K. Lee (2014). Signification of Flipped classroom by sociology of classroom: Focusing on the experience of teachers. Korean Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(2), 181-207.
  21. Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (2013). Evidence on flipped classrooms is still coming in. Educational Leadership, 70(6), 78-80.
  22. H. J. Han, C. I. Im, S. I. Han, & J. W. Park (2015). Instructional Strategies for Integrating Online and Offline Modes of Flipped Learning in Higher Education. Journal of Educational Technology. 31(1), 1-38. DOI: 10.17232/kset.31.1.001
  23. H. S. Lee, S. C. Kang, C. S. Kim (2015). A study on the Effect of Flipped Learning on Learning Motivation and Academic Achievement. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 18(2), 47-57.
  24. H. S. Lee, C. S. Kim, & S. J. Heo (2015). A Comparative Analysis of Verbal Interaction on Traditional Instruction and Flipped Learning. The Korean Association of Information Education, 19(1), 113-126. DOI: 10.14352/jkaie.2015.19.1.113
  25. Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research. In ASEE National Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, GA.
  26. Rahman, A. A., & Mohamed, H. (2014, December). The influences of flipped classroom: a meta analysis. IEEE 6th International Conference on Engineering Education ICEED 2014 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  27. Zainuddin, Z., & Halili, S. H. (2016, April). Flipped classroom research and trends from different fields of study. International Review of Research in Open and Distribute Learning. 17(3). Retrieved from DOI: 10.19173/irrodl.v17i3.2274
  28. Becker, B. J. (1988). Synthesizing standardized mean change measures. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 41, 257-278. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.1988.tb00901.x
  29. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Research synthesis and meta-analysis: A step by step approach (4th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  30. S. S. Oh (2007). Theory and Practice of Meta - Analysis. Seoul: Konkuk University Press.
  31. S. D. Hwang (2016). Meta analysis using R. Seoul: Hakjisa.
  32. Hedges, L.V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta-analysis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  33. I. S. Shin (2017). Meta Analysis: Basics 1. Education Statistics research meeting, 1-307.
  34. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638-641.
  35. Duval, S. J. & Tweedie, R. (2000). A non-parametric 'trim and fill' method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95, 89-98. DOI: 10.2307/2669529
  36. Egger, M. Davey Smith, G., Schneider, M., & Minder, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by simple, graphical test. BMJ, 315, 629-634.
  37. Higgins, J., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic review of interventions version 5.1.0, The Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved from
  38. S. D. Hwang. (2015). Understanding of understandable meta-analysis. Seoul: Hakjisa.
  39. S. I. Kim. (2015). The effects of flipped learning on mathematics learning achievements and mathematical attitude. Unpublished master's thesis. Gyeongin National University of Education, Incheon. DOI: 10.7468/mathedu.2016.55.3.299
  40. S. J. Lee. (2016). Effects on self-directed learning abilities, learning motivation of flipped learning of elementary students. Unpublished master's thesis. Daegu National University of Education, Daegu.
  41. H. Y. Lee. (2017). The Effects of Flipped learning in the problem-solving process lesson in Informatics in Middle School on Learning Motivation and Achievement. Unpublished master's thesis. Korea National University of Education, Choongbook.
  42. J. H. Ryu. (2016). The effect of flipped learning on academic achievement, learning attitudes and class satisfaction of high school English language learners. Unpublished master's thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul.
  43. K. P. Park. (2017). The Influence of the Flipped Learning Science on Middle School Students' Attitude towards and Interest in Science. Unpublished master's thesis. Kongju University, Choongnam.
  44. J. Y. Song. (2016). The influence of flipped learning on high school mathematics learning : self-directed learning, learning attitude, change in scholastic achievement. Unpublished master's thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul.
  45. M. H. Oh. (2016). Effects of Flip Learning Applied Classroom Instruction on Students' Creative Attitude and Learning Achievement. Unpublished master's thesis. Dongkook University, Seoul.
  46. B. H. Lee & H. C. Lee. (2016). The effects of science lesson with the application of flipped learning on science academic achievement and scientific attitude. Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education, 35(1), 78-88. DOI: 10.15267/keses.2016.35.1.078
  47. D. H. Park. (2016). Effects of Flipped Learning-based SSI Program on Students' Key Competencies and Characters as Citizens. Unpublished master's thesis. Ewha University, Seoul.
  48. Y. S. Lee & Y. E (2016). The Effect of the Flipped Learning on Self-efficacy, Critical Thinking Disposition, and Communication Competence of Nursing Students. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education, 22(4), 567-576. DOI: 10.5977/jkasne.2016.22.4.567
  49. H. R. Lee & J. J. Son. (2016). Development and Application of Flipped Classroom Program on 'Earth and Moon' in Elementary School. School Science Journal, 10(33), 319-332.
  50. Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environ Res, 15, 171-193. DOI: 10.1007/s10984-012-9108-4
  51. H. R. Kyeon, E. K. Moon, & I. W. Park. (2015). A meta-analysis on effects of blended learning in Korea. The Journal of Educational Information and Media, 21(3), 333-359. DOI: 10.15833/kafeiam.21.3.333
  52. S. J. Seo. (2015). The Effect of Flipped Learning in Elementary English Instruction in Korea. Unpublished master's thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul.
  53. E. S. Choi. (2017). Effects of flipped jigsaw learning on English grammar and learning attitude amongst high school students. Unpublished master's thesis. Hankuk University of foreign studies, Seoul.
  54. I. S. Shin. (2017). Meta Analysis: application 2. Education Statistics research meeting, 1-285.
  55. J. M. Lee & H. K. Park. (2016). A study on cases for application of flipped learning in K-12 education. Journal of Digital Convergence, 14(8), 19-36. DOI: 10.14400/jdc.2016.14.8.19
  56. D. Y. Lee (2013). Research on developing instructional design models for flipped learning. Journal of Digital Convergence, 11(12), 83-92. DOI: 10.14400/jdpm.2013.11.12.83
  57. S. Y. Pi & S. J. Do (2017). The effectiveness of the flipped learning using the smart device. Journal of Digital Convergence, 15(4), 65-71. DOI: 10.14400/jdc.2017.15.4.65
  58. Cooper, H. M. (2009). Research synthesis and meta-analysis: a step by step approach (4th ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.