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Reverting Gene Expression Pattern of Cancer into Normal-Like Using Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Network

  • Received : 2018.11.16
  • Accepted : 2018.11.25
  • Published : 2018.12.31

Abstract

Cancer show distinct pattern of gene expression when it is compared to normal. This difference results malignant characteristic of cancer. Many cancer drugs are targeting this difference so that it can selectively kill cancer cells. One of the recent demand for personalized treating cancer is retrieving normal tissue from a patient so that the gene expression difference between cancer and normal be assessed. However, in most clinical situation it is hard to retrieve normal tissue from a patient. This is because biopsy of normal tissues may cause damage to the organ function or a risk of infection or side effect what a patient to take. Thus, there is a challenge to estimate normal cell's gene expression where cancers are originated from without taking additional biopsy. In this paper, we propose in-silico based prediction of normal cell's gene expression from gene expression data of a tumor sample. We call this challenge as reverting the cancer into normal. We divided this challenge into two parts. The first part is making a generator that is able to fool a pretrained discriminator. Pretrained discriminator is from the training of public data (9,601 cancers, 7,240 normals) which shows 0.997 of accuracy to discriminate if a given gene expression pattern is cancer or normal. Deceiving this pretrained discriminator means our method is capable of generating very normal-like gene expression data. The second part of the challenge is to address whether generated normal is similar to true reverse form of the input cancer data. We used, cycle-consistent adversarial networks to approach our challenges, since this network is capable of translating one domain to the other while maintaining original domain's feature and at the same time adding the new domain's feature. We evaluated that, if we put cancer data into a cycle-consistent adversarial network, it could retain most of the information from the input (cancer) and at the same time change the data into normal. We also evaluated if this generated gene expression of normal tissue would be the biological reverse form of the gene expression of cancer used as an input.

Keywords

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Figure 1. Structure of Pretrained Discriminator

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Figure 2. Structure of Cycle GAN Network

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Figure 3. t-SNE Unpaired Test Data (700 normal samples, 700 cancer samples)

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Figure 4. t-SNE Paired Test Data (600 normal samples, 600 cancer samples)

Table 1. Data Description

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Table 2. Data Description

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Table 3. Unpaired Test Data (700 normal samples, 700 cancer samples)

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Table 4. Paired Test Data (600 normal samples, 600 cancer samples)

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Handong Global University

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