The Effects of Positivity and Negativity of Present and Future on Temporal distance judgment and Time expression

현재와 미래의 긍정성과 부정성이 시간적 거리 판단과 시간표현에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2018.11.29
  • Accepted : 2018.11.30
  • Published : 2018.12.30


This study examines the effect of present and future situation on the temporal distance estimation to the future. The effect of present and future situation on time expression was verified. In Experiment 1, an experiment was conducted to investigated the effects of positivity/negativity situation of the present and the future on the judgment of subjective the distance to a certain future time. The results are as follows. When the present is positive and the future is negative, the future looks closer than the objective temporal distance and comes faster, When the present is negative and the future is positive, the future looks farther and comes slower. On the other hand, when the present and the future are both negative, the future looks coming slower. And when the present and the future are both positive, the future is expected to come faster. In Experiment 2, the cognitive and emotional aspects of subjective time through time expressions. It can be said to be 'the time of perseverance' in the sense of time for effort. On the other hand, when the present is positive compared to the future, the time seems go fast and we generally prefer to use cognitive expressions such as 'fast' and emotional expressions such as 'near' and 'pleasant' and 'flutter'. It is 'the time of availability', which means the time to enjoy and utilize.


subjective time;temporal distance;time expression;time of availability;time of perseverance


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2008). The Time Paradox. New York: Free Press, Simon & Schuster.
  2. 방영심 (2011). 근대국어 형용사 연구-어휘 체계와 의미 관계를 중심으로. 이화여자대학교 대학원 박사학위논문.
  3. 이고은, 신현정 (2018). 손실과 이익 경험이 주관적 시간 지각에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지:일반, 37(1), 105-125.
  4. Bilgin, B., & LeBoeuf, R. A. (2010). Looming losses in future time perception. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(3), 520-530.
  5. Dahlen, M. (2013). 넥스토피아 미래에 중독된 사람들[Nextopia]. (이은주 역). 서울: 미래의 창. (원전은 2009년에 출판).
  6. Davies, P. (2013). The Ultimate Paradox: A Question of Time. New York: Scientific American.
  7. Droit-Volet, S., & Gil, S. (2009). The time-emotion paradox. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364(1525), 1943-1953.
  8. Droit-Volet, S., & Meck, W. H. (2007). How emotions colour our perception of time. Trends in cognitive sciences, 11(12), 504-513.
  9. Fraisse, P. (1982). Rhythm and tempo. The Psychology of Music, 1, 149-180.
  10. Fraisse, P. (1984). Perception and estimation of time. Annual Review of Psychology, 35(1), 1-37.
  11. Hammond, C. (2012). Time Warped. London, UK: Canongate Books.
  12. Liberman, N., & Forster, J. (2009). The effect of psychological distance on perceptual level of construal. Cognitive science, 33(7), 1330-1341.
  13. Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (1998). The role of feasibility and desirability considerations in near and distant future decisions: A test of temporal construal theory. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(1), 5-18.
  14. Pham, L. B., & Taylor, S. E. (1999). From thought to action: Effects of process-versus outcome-based mental simulations on performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(2), 250-260.
  15. Taylor, S. (2007). Making Time: Why Time Seems to Pass at Different Speeds and How to Control it. London, UK: Icon Books.
  16. Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological review, 110(3), 403-421.
  17. Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological review, 117(2), 440-463.
  18. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1991). Loss aversion in riskless choice: A reference-dependent model. The quarterly journal of economics, 106(4), 1039-1061.
  19. Zakay, D. (1993). Time estimation methods-do they influence prospective duration estimates?. Perception, 22(1), 91-101.
  20. Zakay, D. (2015). The temporal-relevance temporal-uncertainty model of prospective duration judgment. Consciousness and cognition, 38, 182-190.
  21. Zakay, D., & Diamant, I. (2011). THE ROLE OF ATTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS IN PROSPECTIVE TIMING. Proceedings of Fechner Day, 27(1), 143-146.