- Volume 29 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
The Effect of Inter-word Space on Chinese reading: An Eye Movement Study
단어 간 공백이 중국어 글 읽기에 미치는 영향: 안구운동 추적 연구
- Han, Mi-ae (Jeju Halla University) ;
- Jiang, Xin (Beijing Language and Culture University) ;
- Zhao, Weiqi (University of Cincinnati)
- 한미애 (제주한라대학교) ;
- Received : 2018.11.29
- Accepted : 2018.12.31
- Published : 2018.12.30
This research investigated whether inter-word spaces, the spaces between words, can affect the efficiency of Korean-speaking CSL(Chinese as a second language) learners in Chinese reading of Korean-speaking's ability to read Chinese. Through eye movement tracking experiments, CSL learners of different proficiency levels(beginning, intermediate, and advanced) and native Chinese readers were asked to read Chinese sentences with and without inter-word spaces. The tests analysed the participants' fixation counts and the time spent in reading each sentences and also between each words. In terms of the fixation counts and time spent between sentences, the results show that there were no significant difference in participants' fixation counts from reading sentences with and without inter-word spaces. The results also prove that reading sentences with inter-word spaces significantly shortened the reading time for both CSL learners and native Chinese readers. Even for the participants' fixation counts and time duration between each words, participants spent significantly less fixation counts and reading time while reading words with inter-word spaces. The results were more prominent and positive in tests conducted with CSL learners of lower proficiency. This research shows that inter-word spaces in Chinese texts can enhance the efficiency of chinese learners' reading ability.
inter-word space;Chinese reading;second language acquisition;Chinese learners from South Korea;eye tracking
Supported by : 중국 국가사회과학기금, 베이징어언대학
- Zang, C. (2010) The eye movement control in children and adults reading process: the function of word boundary. doctorial dissertation, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
- 고성룡, 윤낙영(2007) 우리 문장 읽기에서 안구 운동의 특성: 어절 길이, 단어 빈도 및 착지점 관련 효과. 인지과학, 4, 325-350.
- Bai, X., Guo, Z., Cao, Y., Gu, J., & Yan, G. (2012) The eye movement function of the promotion of the reading efficiency in elder people, Chinese Journal of Gerontology, 6, 1224-1226.
- Bai, X., Guo, Z., Gu, J., Cao, Y., & Yan, G. (2011). Eye movement research on the influence of word segmentation on Japanese-Chinese bilinguals' Chinese reading. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 11, 1273-1282.
- Bai, X., Tian, J., Yan, G., & Wang, T. (2009). An eye movement research on the influence of word segmentation on American college students' Chinese reading. Nankai Linguistics, 1, 140-153.
- Bai, X. J., Yan, G. L., Liversedge, S. P., Zang, C. L., & Rayner, K.(2008) Reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text: Evidence from eyemovements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 1277-1287. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-15188.8.131.527
- Bai, X., Zhang, T., Tian, L., Liang, F., & Wang, T. (2010) An eye movement research on the influence of word segmentation on Chinese reading of American students. Psychological Research, 5, 25-30.
- Fu, Y. (2008) Investigation to the Advanced Chinese Reading Patterns of Foreign Students by Eye Tracker. doctorial dissertation, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.
- Gao, Y. (2012) A Study on the factors affecting pupils' reading ability. Contemporary Educational Science, 10, 44-47.
- Inhoff, A. W., & Radach, R. (2002). The role of spatial information in the reading of complex words. Comments on Theoretical Biology, 7, 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/08948550213850
- Inhoff, A.W., Radach, R., & Heller, D. (2000). Complex compounds in German: Interword spaces facilitate segmentation but hinder assignment of meaning. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 23-50. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2666
- Jiang, X., & Liu, Y. (2004) Research on the mistakes in writing Chinese characters of foreign students in the background of phonetic alphabet. Chinese Teaching in the World, 1, 60-70.
- Kohsom, C., & Gobet, F. (1997). Adding spaces to Thai and English: Effects on reading. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 19, 388-393.
- Li, X., Bai, X., & Yan, G. (2011) The role of word boundary information and word frequency in Chinese reading, Studies of Psychology and Behevior, 2, 133-139.
- Li, X., Bai, X., Yan, G., Zang, C., & Liang, F. (2010) The role of spaces in text reading. Advances in Psychological Science, 9, 1377-1385.
- Li, X., Liu, P., & Ma, G. (2011) A review of the cognitive mechanism of word segmentation in Chinese reading. Advances in Psychological Science, 4, 459-470.
- Li, X. S., & Logan, G. (2008). Object-based attention in Chinese readers of Chinese words: Beyond Gestalt principles. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 945-949. https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.5.945
- Liu, P. P., & Li, X. S. (2014). Inserting spaces before and after words affects word processing differently in Chinese: Evidence from eye movements. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12013
- Perea, M. & Acha, I. (2009). Space information is important for reading. Vision Reaserch, 49, 1994-2000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2009.05.009
- Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1457-1506. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902816461
- Rayner, K., Fischer, M. H., & Pollatsek, A. (1998). Unspaced text interferes with both word identification and eye movement control. Vision Research, 38, 1129-1144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00274-5
- Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1996). Reading unspaced text is not easy: Comments on the implications of Epelboim et al.'s study for models of eye movement control in reading. Vision Research, 36, 461-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(95)00132-8
- Reilly, R. G., & O'Regan, J. K. (1998). Eye movement controlduring reading: A simulation of some word-targeting strategies. Vision Research, 38, 303-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(97)87710-3
- Reichle, E. D., Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1999). Eye movement control in reading: Accounting for initial fixation locations and refixations within the E-Z Reader model. Vision Research, 39, 4403-4411. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00152-2
- Sainio, M., Hyona, J., Bingushi, K., & Bertram, R. (2007). The role of interword spacing in reading Japanese: An eye movement study. Vision Research, 47, 2575-2584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2007.05.017
- Shen, D., Bai, X., Zang, C., Yan, G., Feng, B., & Fan, X. (2010) An eye movement research on the influence of word segmentation on sentence reading process in beginners, Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2, 159-172.
- Tian, J. (2009) An eye movement research on the influence of word segmentation on Chinese reading process in Korean and Thai students. master thesis, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
- Yan, M., Kliegl, R., Richter, E., Nuthmann, A., & Shu, H. (2010). Flexible saccade target selection in Chinese reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705-725. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210903114858
- Yang, Y., & Fu, Y. (2014) An experimental research of "understanding the word but not the character" in American students. Applied Linguistics, 2, 118-126.