DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Influences of internalized Shame on Social Anxiety of male high school student: Mediating Effects of Perfectionistic Self-Presentation

남자고등학생의 내면화된 수치심이 사회불안에 미치는 영향: 완벽주의적 자기제시의 매개효과

  • Received : 2017.12.13
  • Accepted : 2018.02.20
  • Published : 2018.02.28

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the process of social anxiety among male high school students with prescribed internalized shame. In order to carry out the purposes of research, the study set a model which supposes that perfectionistic self-presentation is mediator between internalized shame and social anxiety. A total of 382 high school students participated in the study. The results of the study are as follows: First, the results of this study showed that the internalized shame and social anxiety appear to have a significant static correlation. In particular, the sense of inadequacy, which is a subordinate concept of the internalized shame, was correlated with social anxiety. Second, perfectionistic self-presentation showed a partially mediated the relationship between internalized shame and perfectionistic self-presentation. These results should be studied not only in cognitive factors contributing to social anxiety but also in the individual inner workings of psychological factors.

Keywords

Convergence;Internalized shame;Social anxiety;Perfectionistic Self-Presentation;Mediating effect

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5(R)). American Psychiatric. DOI : 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
  2. K. H. Lee & E. H. Ha. (2009). The Mediating Effects of Self-efficacy in the Relationships between Adolescent's Traumatic Experience and Social Anxiety. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 6(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.16983/kjsp.2009.6.1.1
  3. Ministry of Health & Welfare. (2017). A Survey on Actual Condition of Mental Health Reports in 2016. Korea Ministry of Health & Welfare. http://www.mohw.go.kr
  4. Morris. T. L & Masia. C. L. (1998). Psychometric evaluation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children : Concurrent validity and normative data. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 27(4), 452-458. DOI : 10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_9 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_9
  5. Bernstein Gail. A, Borchardt Carrie. M & Perwien Amy. R. (1996). Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Past 10 Years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1110-1119. DOI : 10.1097/00004583-199609000-00008 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199609000-00008
  6. Todd. B. Kashdan & James. D. Herbert. (2001). Social Anxiety Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence : Current Status and Future Directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(1), 37-61. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009576610507
  7. Essau. C. A & F. Petermann. (1999). Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Intervention. MMW Fortschr Med, 141(27), 32-35.
  8. K. E. Lee & E. H. Ha. (2011). A Test of a Vulnerability-Stress Model of Social Anxiety in Adolescents. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea. 11(2), 39-57.
  9. Y. Wu & M. Y. Bang. (2012). Analysis of Variables Influencing Social Anxiety of At-risk Adolescents. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders. 28(2), 235-253.
  10. K. E. Lee & E. H. Ha. (2011). A Test of a Vulnerability-Stress Model of Social Anxiety in Adolescents. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 11(2), 39-57.
  11. Weinstock. L. S. (1999). Gender differences in the presentation and management of social anxiety disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 60, 9-13. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v60n0104
  12. Y. K. Hong & K. S. Lee. (2013). A Meta-Analysis on the Variables Related with Social Phobia : 2011-2013. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 29(4), 295-310.
  13. Marks, IM. (1969). Fears and phobias. London W. In : Heinemann Publishing.
  14. Gilbert. P. (1998). What is shame?. New York : Oxford University Press Publishing.
  15. Retzinger. S. M. (1998). Shame in the therapeutic relationship. New York Oxford : Oxford University Press Publishing.
  16. Gilbert. P. (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression : The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherap. 7(3), 174-189. DOI:10.1002/1099-0879(200007)7:3<174::AID-CPP236>3.0.CO;2-U
  17. Cook. D. R. (1988). Measuring shame: The internalized shame scale. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 4(2), 197-215. DOI : 10.1300/J020v04n02_12 https://doi.org/10.1300/J020v04n02_12
  18. Schore. Allan N. (2015). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. New york : Routledge Publishing.
  19. O. B. Jung. (2008). developmental psychology. Seoul : Hakjisa Publishing.
  20. Amies. Peter L, Gelder. MG, & Shaw. PM. (1983). Social phobia: a comparative clinical study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 142(2), 174-179. DOI : 10.1192/bjp.142.2.174 https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.142.2.174
  21. Chang. Edward C. (2002). Examining The link between perfectionism and psychological maladjustment : Social problem solving as a buffer. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(5), 581-595. DOI : 10.1023/A:1020329625158 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020329625158
  22. Flett. G. L & Hewitt. P. L. (2002) Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC, US : American Psychological Association Publishing. DOI : 10.1037/10458-000
  23. Egan. S. J, Wade. T. D & Shafran. R. (2011). Perfectionism as a Transdiagnostic Process : A clinical review. Clinical psychology review, 31(2), 203-212. DOI : 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.009 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.009
  24. Hewitt. Paul L 1st Author et al. (2003). The Interpersonal Expression of Perfection: Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Psychological Distress. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(6), 1303-1325. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.6.1303
  25. J. H. Ha. (2011). Mediation Effect of Defense Styles on the Relation between Perfectionistic Self Presentation and Depression. Korean Journal Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 23(4), 921-941.
  26. Cox. Sarah L & Chen. Junwen. (2015). Perfectionism: A contributor to Social Anxiety and Its Cognitive Processes. Australian Journal of Psychology, 67(4), 231-24. DOI : 10.1111/ajpy.12079 https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12079
  27. J. H. Yoon. (2017). Relationship between Internalized Shame and Social Anxiety : Focusing on mediating models among Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Experiential Avoidance. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 24(10), 253-278. DOI : 10.21509/KJYS.2017.10.24..10.253
  28. Cook. D. R & Coccimiglio. J. (2001). Internalized shame scale : Technical manual. Multi-Health Systems Publishing.
  29. I. S. Lee & H. R. Choi. (2005). Assessment of Shame and Its Relationship With Maternal Attachment, Hypersensitive Narcissism and Loneliness. Korean Journal Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 17(3), 651-670.
  30. J. H. Ha. (2010). A Validity Study of the Korean Version of Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 29(2), 221-239.
  31. Watson. D. & Friend. R. (1969). Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS). Clinical Psychology, 33(4), 448-457.
  32. J. Y. Lee & C. H. Choi. (1997). A Study of the Reliability and the Validity of the Korean versions of Social Phobia Scales (K-SAD, K-FNE). Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16(2), 251-264.
  33. K. S. Kim. (2004). AMOS structural equation model analysis. Seoul : SPSS academy Publishing.
  34. Hair. Joseph F, William C Black, Barry J Babin, Rolph E Anderson & Ronald L Tatham. (2006). Multivariate data analysis 6th Ed, Uppersaddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall Publishing.
  35. Hoyle. RH & AT Panter. (1995). The Analysis of Covariance Structures: Goodness of Fit Indices. Sociological Methods and Research, 11(3), 325-344. DOI : 10.1177/0049124183011003003 https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124183011003003
  36. Shrout. Patrick E & Niall Bolger. (2002). Mediation in Experimental and Nonexperimental Studies : New Procedures and Recommendations. Psychological methods 7(4), 422. DOI : 10.1037//1082-989X.7.4.422 https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422
  37. Flett, G & Hewitt, P. (2014). Perfectionism and Perfectionistic Self-presentation in Social Anxiety. Social Anxiety : Clinical, developmental, and social perspectives, 3, 159-187. DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-394427-6.00007-8
  38. D. H. Lee & H. N. Suh. (2010). The Characteristics of High and Low Perfectionistic Self-Presentation in College Students. Korea Journal of Counseling, 11(1), 91-110. https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.11.1.201003.91
  39. Ashby. Jeffrey S, Rice. Kenneth G & Martin. James L. (2006). Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(2), 148-156. DOI : 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2006.tb00390.x https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2006.tb00390.x
  40. Saboonchi. Fredrik & Lundh. Lars-Gunnar. (1997). Perfectionism, Self-consciousness and Anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(6), 921-928. DOI : 10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00274-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00274-7
  41. Y. A. Jang, J. M. Kim, "The adjusted mediated effect of Socially Prescribed Perfectionism from the effect of internalized shame in academic procrastination", Korean Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 21, No, 8, pp. 131-156, 2014.
  42. S. W. Lee, M. S. Kim & N. M. Yang. (2014). The Relationship Between Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism and Social Anxiety of College Students : The Mediating Effect of Internalized shame and Ambivalence over Emotional Expressivenessty. Korean Psychological Association, 2014(1), 292.