Nutrient production from Korean poultry and loading estimations for cropland

  • Won, Seunggun (Department of Animal Resources, College of Life & Environmental Science, Daegu University) ;
  • Ahmed, Naveed (Division of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • You, Byung-Gu (Division of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Shim, Soomin (Division of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Seung-Su (Division of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Ra, Changsix (Division of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2017.11.12
  • Accepted : 2018.01.09
  • Published : 2018.02.28


Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms. The broiler manure was composted using deep litter composting while for layer deep litter composting, drying, and simple static pile were in practice. The effect of weight reduction and storing period during composting was checked. Three weight reduction cases of compost were constructed to calculate nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs) using data from; i) farm investigation, ii) theoretical P changes (${\Delta}P=0$), and iii) dry basis. Results: During farm investigation of broiler and layer with deep litter composting, there was a 68 and 21% N loss whereas 77 and 33% P loss was found, respectively. In case of layer composting, a loss of 10-56% N and a 52% P loss was observed. Drying manure increased the P concentrations therefore NLCs calculated using dry basis that showed quite higher reductions (67% N; 53% P). Nutrient loss from farm investigation was much higher than reported by Korean Ministry of Environment (ME). Conclusions: Nutrients in manure are decreased when undergo storing or composting process due to microbial action, drying, and leaching. The nutrient load applied to soil is less than the fresh manure, hence the livestock manure management and conservation of environment would be facilitated.


Poultry manure;Nutrient loading coefficient;Volatile solids;Total nitrogen;Total phosphorus


Supported by : Rural Development Administration of Korea


  1. Mallin MA, Cahoon LB. Industrialized animal production-a major source of nutrient and microbial pollution to aquatic ecosystems. Popul Environ. 2003;24(5):369-85.
  2. Kelleher BP, Leahy JJ, Henihan AM, O'Dwyer TF, Sutton D, Leahy MJ. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology - a review. Bioresour Technol. 2002;83(1):27-36.
  3. Bitzer CC, Sims JT. Estimating the availability of nitrogen in poultry manure through laboratory and field studies. J Environ Qual. 1988;17(1):47-54.
  4. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur-Environmental Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC; 2008.
  5. Qambrani NA, Jung SH, Ok YS, Kim YS, Oh S-E. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater remediation by combined autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification for sulfate and pH control: batch tests. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2013;20(12):9084-91.
  6. Stevenson F. Cycles of soils. C, N, P, S, micronutrients. New York: Wiley; 1986.
  7. Won S, You B-G, Ra C. Investigation of Hanwoo manure management and estimation of nutrient loading coefficients on land application. J Anim Sci Technol. 2015;57(1):20.
  8. Oenema O, Oudendag D, Velthof GL. Nutrient losses from manure management in the European Union. Livestock Sci. 2007;112(3):261-72.
  9. Luo WH, Yuan J, Luo YM, Li GX, Nghiem LD, Price WE. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting. Chemosphere. 2014;117:14-9.
  10. Morand P, Peres G, Robin P, Yulipriyanto H, Baron S. Gaseous emissions from composting bark/manure mixtures. Compost Sci Util. 2005;13(1):14-26.
  11. Beck-Friis B, Smars S, Jonsson H, Kirchmann H. SE-structures and environment: gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrous oxide from organic household waste in a compost reactor under different temperature regimes. J Agric Eng Res. 2001;78(4):423-30.
  12. Szanto GL, Hamelers HVM, Rulkens WH, Veeken AHM. $NH_3$, $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ emissions during passively aerated composting of straw-rich pig manure. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98(14):2659-70.
  13. APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington DC: American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation; 1995.
  14. Cooperband L. The art and science of composting: a resource for farmers and compost producers. University of Wisconsin-Madison: Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems; 2002.
  15. Vadas PA, Busch DL, Powell JM, Brink GE. Monitoring runoff from cattlegrazed pastures for a phosphorus loss quantification tool. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2015;199:124-31.
  16. Choi GW, Jeon WJ, Lee EJ, Kwon EH, Lee JH. Investigation on contamination of major viral pathogens in broiler farm litter. (Korean). Korean J Food Sci. 2011;38:181-9.
  17. Carlile FS. Ammonia in poultry houses: a literature review. Worlds Poult Sci J. 1984;40(02):99-113.
  18. Kingston D. A comparison of culturing drag swabs and litter for identification of infections with Salmonella spp. in commercial chicken flocks. Avian Dis. 1981;25(2):513-6.
  19. Volkova VV, Bailey RH, Wills RW. Salmonella in broiler litter and properties of soil at farm location. PLoS One. 2009;4(7):e6403.
  20. Stayer P, Pote L, Keirs R. A comparison of Eimeria oocysts isolated from litter and fecal samples from broiler houses at two farms with different management schemes during one growout. Poult Sci. 1995;74(1):26-32.
  21. Thompson T. Agricultural fertilizers as a source of pollution. Pollution science. Sous la direction de IL Pepper, CP Gerba et ML Brusseau. Academic Press, New York. 1996.
  22. Ghaly A, Alhattab M. Drying poultry manure for pollution potential reduction and production of organic fertilizer. Am J Environ Sci. 2013;9(2):88.
  23. Vadas P, Meisinger J, Sikora L, McMurtry J, Sefton A. Effect of poultry diet on phosphorus in runoff from soils amended with poultry manure and compost. J Environ Qual. 2004;33(5):1845-54.