Field measurements of wind pressure on an open roof during Typhoons HaiKui and SuLi

  • Feng, Ruoqiang (School of Civil Engineering, Member of the Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ.) ;
  • Liu, Fengcheng (School of Civil Engineering, Member of the Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ.) ;
  • Cai, Qi (School of Civil Engineering, Member of the Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ.) ;
  • Yan, Guirong (Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology) ;
  • Leng, Jiabing (Zhongnan Construction Group Limited Company)
  • Received : 2016.12.22
  • Accepted : 2017.12.28
  • Published : 2018.01.25


Full-scale measurements of wind action on the open roof structure of the WuXi grand theater, which is composed of eight large-span free-form leaf-shaped space trusses with the largest span of 76.79 m, were conducted during the passage of Typhoons HaiKui and SuLi. The wind pressure field data were continuously and simultaneously monitored using a wind pressure monitoring system installed on the roof structure during the typhoons. A detailed analysis of the field data was performed to investigate the characteristics of the fluctuating wind pressure on the open roof, such as the wind pressure spectrum, spatial correlation coefficients, peak wind pressures and non-Gaussian wind pressure characteristics, under typhoon conditions. Three classical methods were used to calculate the peak factors of the wind pressure on the open roof, and the suggested design method and peak factors were given. The non-Gaussianity of the wind pressure was discussed in terms of the third and fourth statistical moments of the measured wind pressure, and the corresponding indication of the non-Gaussianity on the open roof was proposed. The result shows that there were large pulses in the time-histories of the measured wind pressure on Roof A2 in the field. The spatial correlation of the wind pressures on roof A2 between the upper surface and lower surface is very weak. When the skewness is larger than 0.3 and the kurtosis is larger than 3.7, the wind pressure time series on roof A2 can be taken as a non-Gaussian distribution, and the other series can be taken as a Gaussian distribution.


Supported by : Natural Science Foundation of China


  1. Aly, A.M., Bitsuamlak, G.T. and Chowdhury, A.G. (2012), "Fullscale aerodynamic testing of a loose concrete roof paver system", Eng. Struct., 44, 260-270.
  2. Apperley, L.W. and Pitsis, N.G. (1986), "Model/full-scale pressure measurements on a grandstand", J Wind Eng Ind Aerod., 23, 99-111.
  3. Chen, F., Li, Q.S. and Wu, J.R. (2011), "Wind effects on a longspan beam string roof structure: Wind tunnel test, field measurement and numerical analysis", J. Constr. Steel Res., 67(10), 1591-1604.
  4. Chen, X. and Zhou, N. (2007), "Equivalent static wind loads on low-rise buildings based on full-scale pressure measurements", Eng. Strut., 29(10), 2563-2575.
  5. Chinese Ministry of Construction (2012), "Load code for the design of building structures in China", GB50009-2012, Beijing, China.
  6. Davenport, A.G. (1964), "Note on the distribution of the largest value of a random function with application to gust loading", Proc. Inst. Civil. Eng., (28), 187-196.
  7. Dong, X. (2012), "Research of wind loads on saddle and flat roofs induced by destructive vortices", Ph.D. Dissertation, Southeast University, NanJing.
  8. Gioffre, M., Gusella, V. and Grigoriu, M. (2001), "Non-Gaussian wind pressure on prismatic buildings. I: Stochastic field", J Struct. Eng. -ASCE, 127(9), 981-989.
  9. Gioffre, M., Gusella, V. and Grigoriu, M. (2001), "Non-Gaussian wind pressure on prismatic buildings. I: Stochastic field", J. Struct. Eng. -ASCE, 127(9), 981-989.
  10. Grigoriu, M. (1995), Applied Non-Gaussian Processes: Examples, Theory, Simulation, Linear Random Vibration, and MATLAB Solutions, Prentice Hall. New Jersey.
  11. Guha, T.K., Sharma, R.N. and Richards, P.J. (2013), "Field studies of wind induced internal pressure in a warehouse with a dominant opening", Wind Struct., 16(1), 117-136.
  12. Gurley, K.R. and Kareem, A. (1998), "A conditional simulation of non-normal velocity/pressure fields", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 77, 39-51.
  13. Hagos, A., Habte, F. and Chowdhury, A.G. (2014), "Comparisons of two wind tunnel pressure databases and partial validation against full-Scale measurements(online)", J. Struct. Eng. -ASCE, 140(10).
  14. Huang, M.F., Huang, S., Feng, H., et al. (2016), "Non-Gaussian time-dependent statistics of wind pressure processes on a roof structure". Wind Struct., 23(4), 275-300.
  15. Huang, M.F., Lou, W., Chan, C.M., Lin, N. and Pan, X. (2013), "Peak distributions and peak factors of ind-induced pressure processes on tall buildings", J Eng. Mech. -ASCE, 139(12), 1744-1756.
  16. Kareem, A. and Zhao, J. (1994), "Analysis of non-Gaussian surge response of tension leg platforms under wind loads", J. Offshore Mech. Arct., 116(3),137-144.
  17. Kato, N., Niihori, Y. and Kurita, T. (1997), "Full-scale measurement of wind-induced internal pressures in a high-rise building", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 69, 619-630.
  18. Kumar, K.S. and Stathopoulos, T. (1999), "Synthesis of non- Gaussian wind pressure time series on low building roofs", Eng. Struct., 21(12), 1086-1100.
  19. Levitan, M.L. and Mehta, K.C. (1992), "Texas tech field experiments for wind loads part 1: building and pressure measuring system", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 43(1), 1565-1576.
  20. Li, Q., Dai, Y. and Li, Z. (2010), "Wind pressures on low-rise building surface during a severe typhoon 'Hagupit' ", J. Build. Struct., 31(4), 62-68
  21. Li, Q.S., Calderone, I. and Melbourne, W.H. (1999), "Probabilistic characteristics of pressure fluctuations in separated and reattaching flows for various free-stream turbulence", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 82(1), 125-145.
  22. Liu, M., Chen, X. and Yang, Q. (2017), "Estimation of peak factor of non-Gaussian wind pressures by improved moment-based Hermite model". J. Eng. Mech. -ASCE, 143(7).
  23. Pitsis, N.G. and Apperley, L.W. (1991), "Further full-scale and model pressure measurements on a cantilever grandstand", J Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 38(2), 439-448.
  24. Rice, S.O. (1954), "Mathematical analysis of random noise", Bell Syst. Technical J., 23(3), 282-332.
  25. Sadek, F. and Simiu,. E. (2002), "Peak non-Gaussian wind effects for database-assisted low-rise building design", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 128(5), 530-539.
  26. Shi, W., Li, Z. and Luo, D. (2014), "Comparison of field measurement and wind tunnel test of wind pressure characteristics over super-tall building during the passage of typhoon Fanabi", ACTA Aerodynamica Sinica, 32(2), 264-271.
  27. Sun, H. and Ye, J. (2016), "3-D characteristics of conical vortex around large-span flat roof by PIV technique", Wind Struct., 22(6), 663-684.
  28. Sun, Y., Wu, Y. and Lin, Z. (2007), "Non-Gaussian features of fluctuating wind pressures on long span roofs", China Civil. Eng. J., 40(4), 1-5.
  29. Tieleman, H.W., Ge, Z., Hajj, M.R. and Reinhold, T.A. (2003), "Pressures on a surface-mounted rectangular prism under varying incident turbulence", J Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 91(9), 1095-1115.
  30. Winterstein, S.R. (1985), "Non-normal responses and fatigue damage", Struct. Eng. -ASCE, 111(10), 1291-1295.
  31. Winterstein, S.R. (1988), "Nonlinear vibration models for extremes and fatigue", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 114(10), 1772-1790.
  32. Yeatts, B.B., Mehta, K.C. and Smith, D.A. (1995), "Field experiments for wind effects on low buildings", Proceedings of the 9th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering.
  33. Yoshida. M., Kondo, K. and Suzuki, M. (1992), "Fluctuating wind pressure measured with tubing system", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 42(1), 987-998.