A Meridic Artificial Diet as a Supporting Meal for Locusta migratoria Rearing

풀무치 사육을 위한 보조먹이로서 반합성 인공사료

  • Jung, Jin Kyo (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science) ;
  • Lee, Gwan Seok (Department of Agro-food Safety and Crop Protection, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Koh, Young Ho (Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University) ;
  • Seo, Bo Yoon (Department of Agro-food Safety and Crop Protection, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Kim, Kwang Ho (Department of Agro-food Safety and Crop Protection, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Moon, Youn-Ho (Bioenergy Crop Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science) ;
  • Heu, Sunggi (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science)
  • 정진교 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부) ;
  • 이관석 (국립농업과학원 농산물안정성부) ;
  • 고영호 (한림대학교 일송생명과학연구소) ;
  • 서보윤 (국립농업과학원 농산물안정성부) ;
  • 김광호 (국립농업과학원 농산물안정성부) ;
  • 문윤호 (국립식량과학원 바이오에너지작물연구소) ;
  • 허성기 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부)
  • Received : 2018.09.11
  • Accepted : 2018.10.17
  • Published : 2018.12.01


A meridic artificial diet, including whole milk powder, wheat bran, maize leaf powder, and sucrose as the main nutrients, was tested for rearing Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). When locusts were supplied with only the artificial diet over their entire life cycle, a second generation was not produced. The same result was observed when the diet was supplied daily and fresh maize leaves were supplied every other day. However, when the diet and fresh maize leaves were supplied alternately every other day, four generations of L. migratoria were produced. Fecundity in adults reared with the alternating diet was higher than that in adults supplied with both the diet and maize leaves daily. These results indicate that this artificial diet could be used as a supplementary food for rearing of L. migratoria.

Table 1. Composition of a meridic diet used for rearing Locusta migratoria

OOGCBV_2018_v57n4_287_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Developmental and reproductive characteristics of nymphs and adults of Locusta migratoria individually reared on maize leaves at 30℃

OOGCBV_2018_v57n4_287_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Developmental and reproductive characteristics of Locusta migratoria supplied with an artificial diet and maize leaves, up to adult mortality

OOGCBV_2018_v57n4_287_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. Developmental and reproductive characteristics of Locusta migratoria supplied with an artificial diet and maize leaves alternately every other day through successive generations

OOGCBV_2018_v57n4_287_t0004.png 이미지

Table 5. Longevity and reproductive characteristics of Locusta migratoria adults supplied with an artificial diet and maize leaves within one cage

OOGCBV_2018_v57n4_287_t0005.png 이미지


Supported by : 농촌진흥청


  1. Cook, A.G., 1977. Nutrient chemicals as phagostimulants for Locusta migratoria (L.). Ecol. Entomol. 2, 113-121.
  2. Dadd, R.H., 1960a. The nutritional requirements of locusts-I. Development of synthetic diets and lipid requirements. J. Insect Physiol. 4, 319-347.
  3. Dadd, R.H., 1960b. The nutritional requirements of locusts-II. Utilization of sterols. J. Insect Physiol. 5, 161-168.
  4. Dadd, R.H., 1960c. The nutritional requirements of locusts-III. Carbohydrate requirements and utilization. J. Insect Physiol. 5, 301-316.
  5. Dadd, R.H., 1961a. The nutritional requirements of locusts-IV. Requirements for vitamins of the B complex. J. Insect Physiol. 6, 1-12.
  6. Tanaka, S., Zhu, D.-H., 2005. Outbreaks of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and control in China. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40, 257-263.
  7. Tu, X., Zhang, Z., Johnson, D.L., Cao, G., Li, Z., Gao, S., Nong, X., Wang, G., 2012. Growth, development and daily change in body weight of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) nymphs at different temperatures. J. Orthop. Res. 21, 133-140.
  8. Van Huis, A., 2013. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 58, 563-583.
  9. Bernays, E.A., Chapman, R.F., MacDonald, J., Salter, J.E.R., 1976. The degree of oligophagy in Locusta migratoria (L.). Ecol. Entomol. 1, 223-230.
  10. Boo, K.S., Kim, Y., Park, K.C., Choi, M.Y., 2005. Insect hormones and physiology. Seoul Univ. Press, Seoul.
  11. Borisova, A.E., 1966. Rearing Locusta migratoria manilensis (Mey.) and Locusta migratoria migratoria L. on semi-synthetic media. Zool. Zh. 45, 858-864.
  12. Borisova, A.E., 1969. The role of carbohydrates in the fertility of the Asian migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratoria L. (Orthoptera, Acrididae), when reared on semi-synthetic media. Entomol. Rev. USSR 48, 141-144.
  13. Charlet, M., Roussel, J.-P., Rinternecht, E., Berchtold, J.-P., Costet, M.-F., 1988. Developmental and morphogenetic alterations in larvae of Locusta migratoria reared on plant diet with a selectively modified sterol profile. J. Insect Physiol. 34, 787-796.
  14. Choi, D.-S., Ma, K.-C., Kim, H.-J., Lee, J.-H., Oh, S.-A., 2017. Morphological characteristics and ecology of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Jeonnam Province. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 56, 421-426.
  15. Cohen, A.C., 2003. Insect diets: science and technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  16. Louveaux, A., Mainguet, A.M., Gillon, Y., 1980. Feeding locusts on freeze-dried plants: a new rearing method for herbivorous insects. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 27, 255-299.
  17. Nishide, Y., Tanaka, S., Saeki, S., 2015. Adaptive difference in daily timing of hatch in two locust species. Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria: The effects of thermocycles and phase polyphenism. J. Insect Physiol. 72, 79-87.
  18. Park, H.C., Han, M.J., Lee, Y.B., Lee, G.S., Kang, T.H., Han, T.M., Hwang, S.J., Kim, T.W., 2010. Biological identity of Hwangchung and history on the control of Hwangchung outbreaks in Joseon dynasty analyzed through the database program on the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and the enrollment of Haegoeje. Korean. J. Appl. Entomol. 49, 375-384.
  19. Pereira, P.C., 2014. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health. Nutrition 30, 619-627.
  20. Rodgers, C.I., Shoemaker, K.L., Robertson, R.M., 2006. Photo-period-induced plasticity of thermosensitivity and acquired thermotolerance in Locusta migratoria. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 4690-4700.
  21. SAS Institute, 2008. SAS OnlineDoc. version 9.1.3. SAS Institute. Cary, North Carolina.
  22. Shi, W.-P., Sun, H.-L., Edward, N., Yan, Y.-H., 2011. Fecal volatile components elicit aggregation in the oriental migratory locust, Locust migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Insect Sci. 16, 166-174.
  23. Singh, P., 1977. Artificial diets for insects, mites, and spiders. IFI/Plenum, New York.
  24. Stevenson, L., Phillips, F., O'Sullivan, K., Walton, J., 2012. Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 63, 1001-1013.
  25. Suzuki, N., 1978. Budgets of dry matter and phosphorus in a locust, Locusta migratoria Linne. Jap. J. Ecol. 28, 277-280.
  26. Dadd, R.H., 1961b. The nutritional requirements of locusts-V. Observations on essential fatty acids, chlorophyll, nutritional salt mixtures, and the protein or amino acid components of synthetic diets. J. Insect Physiol. 6, 126-145.
  27. Dehghani, M., Xiao, C., Money, T.G.A., Shoemaker, K.L., Robertson, R.M., 2011. Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria. J. Insect Physiol. 57, 1480-1488.
  28. Ernst, U.R., Van Hiel, M.B., Depuydt, G., Boerjan, B., De Loof, A., Schoofs, L., 2015. Epigenetics and locust life phase transitions. J. Exp. Biol. 218, 88-99.
  29. Guo, W., Wang, X., Ma, Z., Xue, L., Han, J., Yu, D., Kang, L., 2011. CSP and Takeout genes modulate the switch between attraction and repulsion during behavioral phase change in the migratory locust. PLoS Genet. 7(2): e1001291. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001291.
  30. Gupta., P.D., 1968. Origin and cytochemical analysis of yolk in oogenesis of Locusta migratoria. Cytologia 33, 60-68.
  31. Hamouda, A.B., Ammar, M., Hamouda, M.H.B., Bouain, A., 2009. The role of egg pod foam and rearing conditions of the phase state of the Asian migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratoria (Orthoptera, Acrididae). J. Insect Physiol. 55, 617-623.
  32. Hamouda, A.B., Tanaka, S., 2016. Effects of egg temperature and moisture on phase characteristics of the hatchlings in Locusta migratoria. J. Arid Environ. 134, 56-61.
  33. Hasegawa, E., Tanaka, S., 1996. Sexual maturation in Locusta migratoria females: laboratory vs. field conditions. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 31, 279-290.
  34. Howden, G.F., Hunter-Jones, P., 1958. An artificial diet for the laboratory rearing of locusts. Nature 182, 1527-1528.
  35. Jung, J.K., Nguyen, P., Kim, A-Y., Choi, A.-Y., Yu, Y., Lee, G.S., Koh, Y.H., 2017. Identification of microRNAs and their target transcripts in the migratory locust adult brain revealed their roles in the epigenetic regulation of polyphenisms. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 20, 1396-1401.
  36. Kim, Y.-H., Jung, J.-K., Lee, G.-S., Koh, Y.-H., 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acridae) in Haenamgun, Jeollanam-do, Korea using two mitochondrial genes. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 55, 459-464.
  37. Kumar, G.S., Krishna, A.G.G., 2015. Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 1145-1151.
  38. Lee, G.S., Kim, K.H., Kim, C.S., Lee, W.H., 2016. An outbreak of gregarious nymphs of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Korea and their genetic lineage based on mtDNA COI sequences. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 55, 523-528.
  39. Lee, G.S., Kim, Y.H, Jung, J.K., Koh, Y.H., 2017. Phylogenic analysis of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acridae) in Haenamgun and Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunits. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 56, 371-376.
  40. Lee, G.S., Nguyen, P., Choi, A.-Y., Kim, A-Y., Yu, Y., Jung, J.K., Koh, Y.H., 2018. Coding and long non-coding RNAs regulating adult migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) brain polyphenism revealed via whole transcriptome analyses. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 21, 58-68.
  41. Li, H.Y., Xu, L., Liu, W.J., Fang, M.Q., Wang, N., 2014. Assessment of the nutritive value of whole corn stover and its morphological fractions. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27, 194-200.