Fig. 1. Eggs and pupae used for selecting alternative host insects for laboratory mass rearing of A. orientalis. (A) Halyomopha halys, (B) Riptortus pedestris, (C) Lymantria dispar, (D) Antheraea yamamai, (E) Verlarifictorus spp, (F) Musca domestica, (G) Antheraea pernyi eggs, (H) Antheraea pernyi immature eggs (I) Lycorma delicatula
Fig. 2. Mass-rearing process of Antheraea pernyi adults and immature eggs as an alternative host of L. delicatula. (A) newly emerged A. pernyi adult, (B) eggs, (C) rearing of eggs on Quercus variabilis, (D) collection of pupae on Q. variabilis, (E) selection of females after emergence, (F) storage of females at 1~5℃, (G) abdominal amputation, (H) vertical dissection of abdomen, (I) egg mass, (J) washing the egg mass on the sieve with tap water , (K) drying on the fine mesh , (L) Storage of dried eggs at 1~5℃.
Fig. 3. Laboratory mass-rearing of A. orientalis using A. pernyi ’s immature eggs. (A) released A. orientalis adults on the alternative host eggs, (B) female wasp’s oviposition, (C) host feeding, (D) feeding and oviposition trace on the surface of host eggs, (E) emergence from the hole, (F) supply the honeyed water and host eggs as preys to the emerged adults.
Fig. 4. Developmental periods (egg to pupa) of A. orientalis on eggs of the two insects, L. delicatula and A. pernyi. NS indicates no significant difference (P = 0.074) between the two insects.
Fig. 5. Number of eggs oviposited by A. orientalis female within 24 hours between the two insects, L. delicatula and A. pernyi. NS indicates no significant difference (P = 0.563) between the two insects.
Table 1. Eggs and pupae used for selecting alternative host insects for laboratory mass rearing of A. orientalis
Table 2. Longevities of A. orientalis adults on two different preys