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The effects of human milk proteins on the proliferation of normal, cancer and cancer stem like cells

  • Kang, Nam Mi (Department of Nursing, Konkuk University) ;
  • Cho, Ssang-Goo (Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Dayem, Ahmed Abdal (Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Joohyun (Department of Crop Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Bae, Seong Phil (Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University, Seoul Hospital) ;
  • Hahn, Won-Ho (Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University, Seoul Hospital) ;
  • Lee, Jeong-Sang (Department of Biotechnology and Functional Foods, Jeonju University)
  • Received : 2018.10.15
  • Accepted : 2018.12.03
  • Published : 2018.12.25

Abstract

Human breast milk (HBM) provides neonates with indispensable nutrition. The present study evaluated the anti-cancer activity of diluted and pasteurized early HBM (< 6 weeks' lactation) on human breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB231 were exposed to 1 % HBM from the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks of lactation and exhibited reduced proliferation rates. As controls, breast cell lines (293T and MCF-10A), breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and $CD133^{hi}CXCR4^{hi}ALDH1^{hi}$ patient-derived human cancer stem-like cells (KU-CSLCs) were treated with prominent milk proteins ${\beta}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein, and lactoferrin at varying doses (10, 50, and $100{\mu}g$) for 24 or 48 hrs. The impact of these proteins on cell proliferation was investigated. Breast cancer cell lines treated with ${\kappa}$-casein and lactoferrin exhibited significantly reduced viability, in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, ${\kappa}$-casein selectively impacted only cancer (but not normal breast) cell lines, particularly the more malignant cell line. However, ${\beta}$-casein-exposed human breast cancer cell lines exhibited a significantly higher proliferation rate. Thus, ${\kappa}$-casein and lactoferrin appear to exert selective anti-cancer activities. Further studies are warranted to determine the mechanisms underlying ${\kappa}$-casein- and lactoferrin-mediated cancer cell-selective cytotoxic effects.

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Fig. 1. The cell viabilities of control group and breast cancer cell lines after 24 and 48 hours of incubation periods.

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Fig. 2. The cell viabilities of control group and breast cancer cell lines after 24 and 48 hours of incubation periods.

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Fig. 3. The cell viabilities of control group and breast cancer cell lines after treatment with β-casein, κ-casein, and lactoferrin according to the different cell types and the incubation periods (24 and 48 hours).

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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