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Modified Differential Protection for Transformers in Wind Farms

  • George, Sujo P. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut) ;
  • Ashok, S (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut)
  • Received : 2017.02.25
  • Accepted : 2017.08.21
  • Published : 2018.01.01

Abstract

The liberalization of electricity market and environmental concerns are the major driving forces for the development of Distributed Generation (DG). The mode of grid-connected wind power generation is becoming popular and has matured as a reliable DG technology. The voltage generated by the wind generator is stepped up to the higher voltage by the transformers before connecting to the grid. Operating algorithm of the differential relays for transformer protection used in the wind farms need to be modified to take care of the dynamic nature of fault current caused by the intermittent nature of the wind power. An algorithm for the differential relay is proposed in which dual slope characteristics are adjusted with varying fault level situation according to the wind generator in service as well as with the wind speed. A case study conducted for a typical wind farm shows that the proposed method avoids mal-operation of the differential relay in varying wind power conditions.

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Fig. 1. Transformer differential protection

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Fig. 2. Dual slope characteristics for differential relay

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Fig. 3. Mathematical modeling of modified dual slopecharacteristics

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Fig. 4. Modified dual slope characteristics for transformererdifferential protection

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Fig. 5. Flow chart of modified dual slope differential relay

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Fig. 6. Layout of a typical wind farm

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Fig. 7. Operating points during internal fault and externalfault conditions according to the variation in windpower penetration

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Fig. 8. Modified dual slope characteristics according tovarying wind power penetration

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Fig. 9. Single slope characteristics with external fault andinternal fault operating points

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Fig. 10. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the single slope differential relay duringinter turn internal fault

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Fig. 11. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the single slope differential relay duringlow resistance LLL external fault

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Fig. 12. Dual slope characteristics with the external faultoperating point in the presence of wind farms

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Fig. 13. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the dual slope differential relay duringturn to turn internal fault (All the wind generatorsare not in service)

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Fig. 14. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the differential relay during lowresistance LLL external fault (All the windgenerators are not in service)

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Fig. 15. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the modified dual slope differential relayduring turn to turn internal fault (All the windgenerators are not in service)

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Fig. 16. Primary Current, Secondary Current and Tripsignal for the modified differential relay during arelow resistance LLL external fault (All the windgenerators not in service)

Table 1. Modified differential relay setting according to the wind generators in service

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Table 2. Modified differential relay setting according to the wind speed

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Table 3. Comparison of existing algorithms and proposed algorithm for transformer differential protection

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