Impact of the masonry infills on the correlation between seismic intensity measures and damage of R/C buildings

  • Kostinakis, Konstantinos G. (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University Campus)
  • Received : 2017.12.15
  • Accepted : 2018.01.25
  • Published : 2018.01.25


This paper investigates the role of the masonry infills on the correlation between widely used earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs) and the damage state of 3D R/C buildings taking into account the orientation of the seismic input. For the purposes of the investigation an extensive parametric study is conducted using 60 R/C buildings with different heights, structural systems and masonry infills' distributions. The results reveal that the correlation between the IMs and the seismic damage can be strongly affected by the masonry infills' distribution, depending on the special characteristics of the structural system, the number of stories and the incident angle.


  1. ASCE/SEI 41-06 (2008), Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
  2. Asteris, P.G., Antoniou, S.T., Sophianopoulos, D.S. and Chrysostomou, C.Z. (2011), "Mathematical macromodeling of infilled frames: state of the art", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 137(12), 1508-1517.
  3. Athanatopoulou, A. (2005), "Critical orientation of three correlated seismic components", Eng. Struct., 27(1), 301-312.
  4. Bertero, V.V. and Brokken, S. (1983), "Infills in seismic resistant buildings", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 109(6), 1337-1361.
  5. Beyer, K. and Bommer, J.J. (2006), "Relationships between median values and between aleatory variabilities for different definitions of the horizontal component of motion", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 96(4A), 1512-1522.
  6. Cantagallo, C., Camata, G., Spacone, E. and Corotis, R. (2012), "The variability of deformation demand with ground motion intensity", Prob. Eng. Mech., 28, 59-65.
  7. Carr, A. (2004), "Ruaumoko-a program for inelastic time-history analysis", Program Manual, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
  8. Cornell, C.A. and Krawinkler, H. (2000), Progress and Challenges in Seismic Performance Assessment, PEER Center News.
  9. Crisafulli, F.J. (1997), "Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures with masonry infills", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  10. Crisafulli, F.J., Carr, A.J. and Park, R. (2000), "Analytical modelling of infilled frames structures-a general review", Bull. NZ Soc. Earthq. Eng., 33(1), 30-47.
  11. Das, S. and Nau, J.M. (2003), "Seismic design aspects of vertically irregural reinforced concrete buildings", Earthq. Spectra, 19(3), 455-477.
  12. Dolsek, M. and Fajfar, P. (2008a), "The effect of masonry infills on the seismic response of a four storey reinforced concrete frame-a deterministc assessment", Eng. Struct., 30, 1991-2001.
  13. Dolsek, M. and Fajfar, P. (2008b), "The effect of masonry infills on the seismic response of a four storey reinforced concrete frame-a probabilistic assessment", Eng. Struct., 30, 3186-3192.
  14. EC2 (2004), Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization.
  15. EC6 (2005), Eurocode 6: Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures, European Committee for Standardization.
  16. EC8 (2003), Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance - Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization.
  17. EERI (2000), "1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake reconnaissance report", Earthq. Spectra, 16(S1), 237-379.
  18. Elenas, A. (1997), "Interdependency between seismic acceleration parameters and the behaviour of structures", Soil. Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 16, 317-322.
  19. Elenas, A. (2000), "Correlation between seismic acceleration parameters and overall structural damage indices of buildings", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 20, 93-100.
  20. Elenas, A. and Meskouris, K. (2001), "Correlation study between seismic acceleration parameters and damage indices of structure", Eng. Struct., 23, 698-704.
  21. European Strong-Motion Database (2003),
  22. Fontara, I.K.M., Kostinakis, K.G., Manoukas, G.E. amd Athanatopoulou, A.M. (2015), "Parameters affecting the seismic response of buildings under bi-directional excitation", Struct. Eng. Mech., 53(5), 957-979.
  23. Gunturi, S.K.V. and Shah, H.C. (1992), "Building specific damage estimation", Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Rotterdam, Balkema.
  24. Imbsen Software Systems (2006), XTRACT: Version 3.0.5, Cross-Sectional Structural Analysis of Components, Sacramento, CA.
  25. Jayaram, N., Mollaioli, F., Bazzurro, P., De Sortis, A. and Bruno, S. (2010), "Prediction of structural response in reinforced concrete frames subjected to earthquake ground motions", Proceedings of the US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Toronto, Canada, July.
  26. Kostinakis, K., Athanatopoulou, A. and Avramidis, I. (2012), "Orientation effects of horizontal seismic components on longitudinal reinforcement in R/C Frame elements", Nat. Hazard. Earth. Syst. Sci., 12, 1-10.
  27. Kostinakis, K., Athanatopoulou, A. and Avramidis, I. (2013), "Evaluation of inelastic response of 3D single-story R/C frames under bi-directional excitation using different orientation schemes", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 11, 637-661.
  28. Kostinakis, K., Athanatopoulou, A. and Morfidis, K. (2015a), "Correlation between ground motion intensity measures and seismic damage of 3D R/C buildings", Eng. Struct., 82, 151-167.
  29. Kostinakis, K., Morfidis, K. and Xenidis, H. (2015b), "Damage response of multistorey r/c buildings with different structural systems subjected to seismic motion of arbitrary orientation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 44, 1919-1937.
  30. Kramer, S.L. (1996), Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall.
  31. Lagaros, N.D. (2010), "Multicomponent incremental dynamic analysis considering variable incident angle", Struct. Infrastr. Eng., 6, 77-94.
  32. Liao, W.I., Hsiung, C. and Wan, S. (2001), "Earthquake responses of RC moment frames subjected to near-fault ground motions", Struct. Des. Tall Build., 10, 219-229.
  33. Lucchini, A., Monti, G. and Kunnath, S. (2011), "Nonlinear response of two-way asymmetric single-story building under biaxial excitation", J. Struct. Eng., 137(1), 34-40.
  34. Masi, A., Vona, M. and Mucciarelli, M. (2011), "Selection of natural and synthetic accelerograms for seismic vulnerability studies on reinforced concrete frames", J. Struct. Eng., 137, 367-378.
  35. Mondal, G. and Tesfamariam, S. (2014), "Effects of vertical irregularity and thickness of unreinforced masonry infill on the robustness of RC framed buildings", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 43, 205-223.
  36. Naeim, F. (2001), The Seismic Design Handbook, 1st Edition, Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA.
  37. Negro, P. and Colombo, A. (1997), "Irregularities induced by nonstructural masonry panels in framed buildings", Eng. Struct., 19(7), 576-585.
  38. Otani, A. (1974), "Inelastic analysis of RC frame structures", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 100(7), 1433-1449.
  39. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (PEER) (2003), Strong Motion Database.
  40. Penzien, J. and Watabe, M. (1975), "Characteristics of 3-D earthquake ground motions", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 3, 365-373.
  41. RAF (2012), Structural Analysis and Design Software v.3.3.2. TOL (Engineering Software House), Iraklion, Crete, Greece.
  42. Ricci, P., De Luca, F. and Verderame, G.M. (2010), "6th April 2009 L' Aquila earthquake, Italy: reinforced concrete building performance", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 9(1), 285-305.
  43. Ricci, P., De Ricci, M.T., Verderame, G.M. and Manfredi, G. (2013), "Influence of infill distribution and design typology on seismic performance of low-and mid-rise RC buildings", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 11, 1585-1616.
  44. Ricci, P., Verderame, G.M. and Manfredi, G. (2011), "Analytical investigation of elastic period of infilled RC MRF buildings", Eng. Struct., 33, 308-319.
  45. Riddell, R. (2007), "On ground motion intensity indices", Earthq. Spectra, 23, 147-173.
  46. Rigato, A. and Medina, R. (2007), "Influence of angle of incidence on seismic demands for inelastic single-storey structures subjected to bi-directional ground motions", Eng. Struct., 29, 2593-2601.
  47. Tarque, N., Candido, L., Camata, G. and Spacone, E. (2015), "Masonry infilled frame structures: state-of-the-art review of numerical modelling", Earthq. Struct., 8(3), 733-759.
  48. Yakut, A. and Yilmaz, H. (2008), "Correlation of deformation demands with ground motion intensity", J. Struct. Eng., 134(12), 1818-1828.
  49. Yuen, Y.P. and Kuang, J.S. (2015), "Nonlinear seismic response and lateral force transfer mechanisms of RC frames with different infill configurations", Eng. Struct., 91, 125-140.