DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Thrombolite reefs with archaeocyaths from the Xiannüdong Formation (Cambrian Series 2), Sichuan, China: implications for early Paleozoic bioconstruction

  • Zhang, Meiqi (Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Hong, Jongsun (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University) ;
  • Choh, Suk-Joo (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Dong-Jin (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Andong National University)
  • Received : 2016.07.25
  • Accepted : 2017.02.02
  • Published : 2017.10.01

Abstract

The early Cambrian incorporation of organisms with calcareous skeletons into microbial reefs initiated the metazoan bioconstructions of the Phanerozoic. Microbial reefs containing archaeocyaths from the middle early Cambrian $Xiann\ddot{u}dong$ Formation of the South China Block are investigated. The $Xiann\ddot{u}dong$ thrombolitic frameworks are composed primarily of Girvanella clumps and crusts, micritic clumps, and subordinate Epiphyton bundles. Amalgamated microbial frameworks contain sparse and rare (< 5%) archaeocyaths, with irregular archaeocyaths dominating the regular archaeocyaths by 6:1, and enclosed by Girvanella and other microbial elements. These $Xiann\ddot{u}dong$ thrombolitic reefs are broadly similar to other lower Cambrian thrombolitic reefs containing archaeocyaths, developed around shoals and lagoons. Similar thrombolitic reefs of the middle Cambrian from the Sino-Korean Block and Australia show reduced and increased contributions of Girvanella and Epiphyton, respectively, and the incorporation of lithistid and heteractinide sponges instead of archaeocyaths. These data suggest that the late early Cambrian decline of the archaeocyaths and their nearly instantaneous replacement by other metazoans allowed the continuance of microbial reefs with rare metazoans until the late Middle Ordovician shift in reef construction to metazoan reefs.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation

References

  1. Wood, R.A., Evans, K.R., and Zhuravlev, A.Y., 1992, A new post-early Cambrian archaeocyath from Antarctica. Geological Magazine, 129, 491-499. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800019579
  2. Adachi, N., Kotani, A., Ezaki, Y., and Liu, J., 2015, Cambrian Series 3 lithistid sponge-microbial reefs in Shandong Province, North China: reef development after the disappearance of archaeocyaths. Lethaia, 48, 405-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12118
  3. Alvaro, J.J. and Debrenne, F., 2010, The Great Atlasian Reef Complex: An early Cambrian subtropical fringing belt that bordered West Gondwana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294, 120-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.11.022
  4. Chough, S.K., 2013, Geology and Sedimentology of the Korean Peninsula. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 363 p.
  5. Coniglio, M. and James, N.P., 1985, Calcified algae as sediment contributors to early Paleozoic limestones: evidence from deep-water sediments of the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 55, 746-754.
  6. Debrenne, F., 2007, Lower Cambrian archaeocyathan bioconstructions. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 6, 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2006.07.003
  7. Debrenne, F., Rozanov, A.Y., and Webers, G.F., 1984, Upper Cambrian Archaeocyatha from Antarctica. Geological Magazine, 121, 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800029186
  8. Debrenne, F., Gandin, A., and Rowland, S.M., 1989, Lower Cambrian bioconstructions in northwestern Mexico (Sonora). Depositional setting, paleoecology and systematics of archaeocyaths. Geobios, 22, 137-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(89)80127-5
  9. Debrenne, F., Gandin, A., and Zhuravlev, A., 1991, Palaeoecological and sedimentological remarks on some Lower Cambrian sediments of the Yangtse Platform (China). Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 162, 575-583.
  10. Debrenne, F., Gandin, A., and Courjault-Rade, P., 2002, Facies and depositional setting of the Lower Cambrian archaeocyath-bearing limestones of southern Montagne Noire (Massif Central, France). Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 173, 533-546. https://doi.org/10.2113/173.6.533
  11. Debrenne, F., Zhuravlev, A.Y., and Kruse, P.D., 2015, General features of the Archaeocyatha. In: Selden, P.A. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part E, Revised, vol. 5. The University of Kansas Paleontological Institute, Lawrence, p. 845-922.
  12. Gandin, A. and Debrenne, F., 2010, Distribution of the archaeocyath-calcimicrobial bioconstructions on the Early Cambrian shelves. Palaeoworld, 19, 222-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2010.09.010
  13. Gandin, A. and Luchinina, V., 1993, Occurrence and environmental meaning of the Early Cambrian calcareous algae of the Tianheban Formation of China (Yangtze Area). In: Barattolo, F., De Castro, P., and Parente, M. (eds.), Studies on Fossil Benthic Algae. Bollettino Societa Paleontologica Italiana, Special Volume, 1, p. 211-217.
  14. Gandin, A., Debrenne, F., and Debrenne, M., 2007, Anatomy of the Early Cambrian 'La Sentinella' reef complex, Serra Scoris, SW Sardinia, Italy. In: Alvaro, J.J., Aretz, M., Boulvain, F., Munnecke, A., Vachard, D., and Vennin, E. (eds.), Paleozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls. Geological Society, Special Publication, 275, p. 29-50.
  15. Hersi, O.S., Abbasi, I.A., Al-Harthy, A., Cherchi, A., and Schroeder, R., 2014, Stratigraphic evolution and depositional system of Lower Cretaceous Qishn Formation, Dhofar, Oman. In: Rollinson, H.R., Searle, M.P., Abbasi, I.A., Al-Lazki, A.I., and Al Kindi, M.H. (eds.), Tectonic Evolution of the Oman Mountains. Geological Society, Special Publication, 392, p. 303-323.
  16. Hicks, M. and Rowland, S.M., 2009, Early Cambrian microbial reefs, archaeocyathan inter-reef communities, and associated facies of the Yangtze Platform. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 281, 137-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.07.018
  17. Hong, J., Cho, S.-H., Choh, S.-J., Woo, J., and Lee, D.-J., 2012, Middle Cambrian siliceous sponge-calcimicrobe buildups (Daegi Formation, Korea): Metazoan buildup constituents in the aftermath of the Early Cambrian extinction event. Sedimentary Geology, 253-254, 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.01.011
  18. Hong, J., Choh, S.-J., and Lee, D.-J., 2016a, Distribution of chancelloriids in a middle Cambrian carbonate platform deposit, Taebaek Group, Korea. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 90, 783-795. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12722
  19. Hong, J., Lee, J.-H., Choh, S.-J., and Lee, D.-J., 2016b, Cambrian Series 3 carbonate platform of Korea dominated by microbial-sponge reefs. Sedimentary Geology, 341, 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.04.012
  20. James, N.P., 1981, Megablocks of calcified algae in the Cow Head Breccia, western Newfoundland: Vestiges of a Cambro-Ordovician platform margin. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 92, 799-811. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1981)92<799:MOCAIT>2.0.CO;2
  21. James, N.P. and Gravestock, D.I., 1990, Lower Cambrian shelf and shelf margin buildups, Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Sedimentology, 37, 455-480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1990.tb00147.x
  22. Jones, B.J., 2010, Warm-water neritic carbonates. In: James, N.P. and Dalrymple, R.W. (eds.), Facies Models 4. Geological Association of Canada, St. John's, p. 341-369.
  23. Kruse, P.D. and Zhuravlev, A.Y., 2008, Middle-Late Cambrian Rankenella-Girvanella reefs of the Mila Formation, northern Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 45, 619-639. https://doi.org/10.1139/E08-016
  24. Kruse, P.D. and Reitner, J.R., 2014, Northern Australian microbial-metazoan reefs after the mid-Cambrian mass extinction. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Paleontologists, 45, 31-53.
  25. Kruse, P.D., Zhuravlev, A.Y., and James, N.P., 1995, Primordial metazoan-calcimicrobial reefs: Tommotian (Early Cambrian) of the Siberian Platform. Palaios, 10, 291-321. https://doi.org/10.2307/3515157
  26. Lee, H.S. and Chough, S.K., 2011, Depositional processes of the Zhushadong and Mantou formations (Early to Middle Cambrian), Shandong Province, China: roles of archipelago and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on cycle genesis during initial flooding of the North China Platform. Sedimentology, 58, 1530-1572. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2011.01225.x
  27. Lee, J.-H., Hong, J., Woo, J., Oh, J.-R., Lee, D.-J., and Choh, S.-J., 2016a, Reefs in the early Paleozoic Taebaek Group, Korea: a review. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 90, 352-367. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12659
  28. Lee, J.-H., Hong, J., Choh, S.-J., Lee, D.-J., Woo, J., and Riding, R., 2016b, Early recovery of sponge framework reefs after Cambrian archaeocyath extinction: Zhangxia Formation (early Cambrian Series 3), Shandong, North China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457, 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.018
  29. Liu, F.-H., Su, C.-Q., Yang, Y.-Y., Li, Z.-X., and Ye, J., 1987, Sedimentary facies analysis of Cambrian in the south of Micang Mountain. Journal of Xi'an College of Geology, 9, 1-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  30. McKenzie, N.R., Hughes, N.C., Myrow, P.M., Choi, D.K., and Park, T.-Y., 2011, Trilobites and zircons link north China with the eastern Himalaya during the Cambrian. Geology, 39, 591-594. https://doi.org/10.1130/G31838.1
  31. Narbonne, G.M. and Arbuckle, S.M., 1989, Lower Cambrian algal-archaeocyathan reef mounds from the Wernecke Mountains, Yukon Territory. In: Geldsetzer, H.H.J., James, N.P., and Tebbutt, G.E. (eds.), Reefs, Canada and Adjacent Area. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 13, p. 156-160.
  32. Palma, R.M., Lopez-Gomez, J., and Piethe, R.D., 2007, Oxfordian ramp system (La Manga Formation) in the Bardas Blancas area (Mendoza Province) Neuquen Basin, Argentina: Facies and depositional sequences. Sedimentary Geology, 195, 113-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.07.001
  33. Park, T.-Y.S., Kihm, J.-H., Woo, J., Zhen, Y.-Y., Engelbretsen, M., Hong, J., Choh, S.-J., and Lee, D.-J., 2016, Cambrian stem-group cnidarians with a new species from the Cambrian Series 3 of the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 90, 827-837. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12726
  34. Pratt, B.R., 1982, Stromatolitic framework of carbonate mud-mounds. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52, 1203-1227.
  35. Pratt, B.R., Spincer, B.R., Wood, R.A., and Zhuravlev, A.Y., 2001, Ecology and evolution of Cambrian reefs. In: Zhuravlev, A.Y. and Riding, R. (eds.), Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 254-274.
  36. Rankey, E.C., Riegl, B., and Steffen, K., 2006, Form, function and feedbacks in a tidally dominated ooid shoal, Bahamas. Sedimentology, 53, 1191-1210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2006.00807.x
  37. Rees, M.R., Pratt, B.R., and Rowell, A.J., 1989, Early Cambrian reefs, reef complexes, and associated lithofacies of the Shackleton Limestone, Transantarctic Mountains. Sedimentology, 36, 341-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1989.tb00611.x
  38. Riding, R., 2000, Microbial carbonates: the geological record of calcified bacterial-algal mats and biofilms. Sedimentology, 47, 179-214. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.2000.00003.x
  39. Riding, R. and Zhuravlev, A.Y., 1995, Structure and diversity of oldest sponge-microbe reefs: Lower Cambrian, Aldan River, Siberia. Geology, 23, 649-652. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0649:SADOOS>2.3.CO;2
  40. Rowland, S.M., 1984, Were there framework reefs in the Cambrian? Geology, 12, 181-183. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<181:WTFRIT>2.0.CO;2
  41. Rowland, S.M. and Gangloff, R.A., 1988, Structure and paleoecology of Lower Cambrian reefs. Palaios, 3, 111-135. https://doi.org/10.2307/3514525
  42. Rowland, S.M. and Shapiro, R.S., 2002, Reef patterns and environmental influences in the Cambrian and earliest Ordovician. In: Kiessling, W., Flugel, E., and Golonka, J. (eds.), Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. SEPM, Special Publication, 72, p. 95-128.
  43. Shen, C., Tan, X.-C., Li, L., Shi, K.-L., Su, C.-P., Lian, C.-B., Li, H.-W., and Xiao, D., 2015, Sedimentary characters of carbonate platform marginal slope of the Early Cambrian in northern Sichuan Basin and perspective of deformation structure. Journal of Palaeogeography, 17, 321-334. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  44. Wilmeth, D.T., Corsetti, F.A., Bisenic, N., Dornbos, S.Q., Oji, T., and Gonchigdorj, S., 2015, Punctuated growth of microbial cones within Early Cambrian oncoids, Bayan Gol Formation, western Mongolia. Palaios, 30, 836-845. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2015.014
  45. Woo, J., Chough, S.K., and Han, Z., 2008, Chambers of Epiphyton thalli in microbial buildups, Zhangxia Formation (Middle Cambrian), Shandong Province, China. Palaios, 23, 55-64. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2006.p06-103r
  46. Wood, R., 1999, Reef Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 414 p.
  47. Wood, R., Zhuravlev, A.Y., and Anaaz, C.T., 1993, The ecology of Lower Cambrian buildups from Zuune Arts, Mongolia: implications for early metazoan reef evolution. Sedimentology, 40, 829-858. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1993.tb01364.x
  48. Yang, A., Zhu, M., Zhuravlev, A.Y., Yuan, K., Zhang, J., and Chen, Y., 2016a, Archaeocyathan zonation of the Yangtze Platform: Implications for regional and global correlation of lower Cambrian stages. Geological Magazine, 153, 388-409. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756815000333
  49. Yang, H., Mao, Y., Pan, B., and Li, G., 2016b, Microfacies sequences of the early Cambrian (Series 2) Xiannudong Formation reefs in southern Shaanxi Province, NW China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 33, 75-86. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  50. Yu, K., Jin, Z., Su, K., Dong, X., Zhang, W., Du, H.Y., Chen, Y., and Zhang, W., 2013, The Cambrian sedimentary characteristics and their implications for oil and gas exploration in north margin of Middle-Upper Yangtze Plate. Science China Earth Sciences, 56, 1014-1028.
  51. Zhang, T.-S., Lan G.-Z., Shen, Z.-G., Wang, S.-Y., and Jiang, Z.-Y., 2005, Early Cambrian reefs and banks development in southern margin of Daba Mountain and Micang Mountain. Natural Gas Geoscience, 16, 710-714. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  52. Zhao, B., Du, S., and Xu, X., 1997, The lithostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of Cambrian in the south of Micangshan Area. Journal of Mineral Petrology, 17, 18-28. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  53. Zhuravlev, A.Y., 1996, Reef ecosystem recovery after the Early Cambrian extinction. In: Hart, M.B. (ed.), Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction Events. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 102, p. 79-96.