- Volume 30 Issue 12
DOI QR Code
Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) stem
- Zi, Xuejuan ;
- Li, Mao ;
- Zhou, Hanlin ;
- Tang, Jun ;
- Cai, Yimin
- Received : 2017.02.13
- Accepted : 2017.06.02
- Published : 2017.12.01
Objective: The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. Methods: The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results: The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion: Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.
Goat;Stylo Stem;Shear Force;Chemical Composition;In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility
- Li, M, Zi XJ, Zhou HL, Hou GY, Cai YM. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Stylosanthes guianensis varieties. Grassland Sci 2014;60:125-9.
- Bureenok S, Sisaath K, Yuangklang C, Vasupen K, Schonewille JTh. Ensiling characteristics of silages of Stylo legume (Stylosanthes guianensis), Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and their mixture, treated with fermented juice of lactic bacteria, and feed intake and digestibility in goats of rations based on these silages. Small Rumin Res 2016;134:84-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2015.12.006
- Silva TCD, Pereira OG, Agarussi MCN. Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande silage with or without concentrate in sheep diets, Nutritional value and ruminal fermentation. Small Rumin Res 2015;126:34-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2015.03.011
- Mutiaka BK, Boudry C, Picron P, Kiatoko H, Bindelle J. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis. Trop Anim Health Prod 2014;46:1497-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0647-9
- Pen M, Savage DB, Nolan JV, Seng M. Effect of Stylosanthes guianensis supplementation on intake and nitrogen metabolism of Bos indicus cattle offered a basal diet of mixed rice straw and tropical grass. Anim Prod Sci 2013;53:1453-7.
- Iwaasa AD, Beauchemin KA, Buchanan-Smith JG, Acharya SN. A shearing technique measuring resistance properties of plant stems. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1996;57:225-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00859-4
- Chen YX, Chen J, Zhang YF, Zhou DW. Effects of harvest date on shearing force of maize stems. Livest Sci 2007;111:33-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.11.013
- Zhou DW, Chen J, She JK, Tong J, Chen YX. Temporal dynamics of shearing force of rice stem. Biomass Bioenerg 2012;47:109-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.09.056
- Zhao, CH, Zhang FW, Cao ZZ. Experiment on stalk mechanical properties of legume forage and grasses. Trans CSAE 2009;25:122-6.
- Zhao CH, Han ZS, Shi SL, Zhang FW. Mechanical properties and microstructure of new species forage stems in harvesting period. Trans CSAE 2011;27:179-83.
- Li XC, Liu MY, Niu ZY. Test of shear mechanical properties of wheat stalks. J Huazhong Agric Univ 2012;31:253-7.
- Wang ZF, Yang ZB, Yang WR, et al. Changing laws and correlations of shearing force and feed characteristics of maize plant. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 2012;45:509-12.
- Cui XM, Yang ZB, Yang WR, et al. Correlations of shearing force and feed nutritional characteristics of crop straws. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 2012;45:3137-46.
- Liu L, Yang ZB, Yang, WR, Jiang SZ, Zhang GG. Correlations among shear force, morphological characteristic, chemical composition, and in situ digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) stem. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2009;22:520-7. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80477
- Hughes NRG, do Valle CB, Sabatel V, et al. Shearing strength as an additional selection criterion for quality in Brachiaria pasture ecotypes. J Agric Sci 2000;135:123-30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859699008084
- AOAC. Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC: AOAC International; 1990.
- Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Symposium, carbohydrate methodology, metabolism, and nutritional implications in dairy cattle. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Menke KH, Steingas H. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analyses and in vitro production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev 1988;28:7-55.
- ARC. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Slough, UK: Agricultural Research Council, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux; 1965.
- SAS. User's guide, statistics. Version 8 Edition. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Inst. Inc.; 1999.
- Sinclair LA, Wilkinson RG, Ferguson DMR. Effects of crop maturity and cutting height on the nutritive value of fermented whole crop wheat and milk production in dairy cows. Livest Prod Sci 2003;81:257-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00261-0
- Wang YJ, Wang KJ, Dong ST, et al. Effects of stubble height and clipped plant height on yield and forage quality of Euchlaena mexicana. Acta Agronomica Sinica 2006;32:155-8.
- Al-Masri MR. An in vitro nutritive evaluation of olive tree (Olea europaea) pruning residues as affected by cutting regimen. Bioresour Technol 2012;103:234-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.130
- Dong CF, Shen YX, Ding CL, et al. The feeding quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw at different cutting heights and the related stem morphological traits. Field Crops Res 2013;141:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.11.003
- Cui XM, Yang ZB, Yang WR, et al. Variation and correlation of shearing force with feed nutritional characteristics of wheat straw. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2013;26:1466-73.
- Herrro M, do Valle CB, Hughes NRG, Sabatel V, Jessop NS. Measurements of physical strength and their relationship to the chemical composition of four species of Brachiaria. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2001;92:149-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00261-9
Supported by : Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, China Ministry of Science and Technology