Effect of condensed tannins from Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs

  • Pathak, A.K. (Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, SKUAST-Jammu) ;
  • Dutta, Narayan (Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Pattanaik, A.K. (Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Chaturvedi, V.B. (Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Sharma, K. (ATS Greens Paradiso)
  • Received : 2017.02.01
  • Accepted : 2017.05.30
  • Published : 2017.12.01


Objective: The study examined the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs. Methods: Twenty four lambs of ~6 months age (average body weight $10.1{\pm}0.60kg$) were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5, and CT-2 containing 0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 percent CT through LMM, respectively) consisting of 6 lambs each in a completely randomized design. All the lambs were offered a basal diet of wheat straw ad libitum, oat hay (100 g/d) along with required amount of concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirements for a period of 6 months. After 3 months of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted on all 24 lambs to determine nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Respiration chamber study was started at the mid of 5th month of experimental feeding trial. Whole energy balance trials were conducted on individual lamb one after the other, in an open circuit respiration calorimeter. Results: Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g/d) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in CT-1.5 than control. Digestibility of various nutrients did not differ irrespective of treatments. Nitrogen retention and microbial nitrogen synthesis (g/d) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CT-1.5 and CT-2 groups relative to CT-0.Total body weight gain (kg) and average daily gain (g) were significantly (linear, p<0.01) higher in CT-1.5 followed by CT-1 and CT-0, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) by lambs was significantly (linear, p<0.01) better in CT-1.5 followed by CT-2 and CT-0, respectively. Total wool yield (g; g/d) was linearly (p<0.05) higher for CT-1.5 than CT-0. Methane emission was linearly decreased (p<0.05) in CT groups and reduction was highest (p<0.01) in CT-2 followed by CT-1.5 and CT-1. Methane energy (kcal/d) was linearly decreased (p<0.05) in CT groups. Conclusion: The CT supplementation at 1% to 2% of the diet through Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava LMM significantly improved nitrogen metabolism, growth performance, wool yield, FCR and reduced methane emission by lambs.


Condensed Tannins;Lambs;Leaf Meal Mixture;Methane Emission


  1. Pal A, Sharma RK, Kumar R, Barman K. Effect of replacement of concentrate mixture with iso-nitrogenous leaf meal mixture on growth, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in goats. Small Rum Res 2010;91:132-40.
  2. Dey A, Dutta N, Sharma K, Pattanaik AK. Effect of dietary inclusion of Ficus infectoria leaves as a protectant of proteins on the performance of lambs. Small Rum Res 2008;75:105-14.
  3. Pathak AK, Dutta N, Banerjee PS, et al. Influence of dietary supplementation of condensed tannins through leaf meal mixture on intake, nutrient utilization and performance of Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2013;26:1446-58.
  4. Jones WT, Mangan JL. Complexes of the condensed tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia) with fraction. 1. Leaf protein and with submaxillary muco-protein and their reversal by polyethylene glycol and pH. J Sci Food Agric 1977;28:126-36.
  5. Salunke DK, Chavan JK, Kadam SS. Dietary tannins: Consequences and ramedies. Boca Ratan, FL, USA: CRC Press; 1990.
  6. Lees GL. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: Their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat. In: Hemingway RW, Laks PE, editors. Plant polyphenols. NY, USA: Phanum Press; 1992. pp. 915-34.
  7. Lowry JB. Toxic factors and problems: methods of alleviating them in animals. In: Devendra C, editor. Shrubs and tree fodders for farm animals. Proceedings of a workshop in Denpasar, Indonesia. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC; 1990. pp. 76-8.
  8. Hagerman AE. Tannin-protein interactions. In: Ho CT, Lee CY, Huang MT, editors. Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health. 1. Analysis, occurrence and chemistry. Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. No. 506. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 1992. pp. 236-47.
  9. Williams CM, Eun JS, MacAdam JW, et al. Effects of forage legumes containing condensed tannins on methane and ammonia production in continuous cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011;166-167:364-72.
  10. Patra AK. Meta-analysis of effects of phytochemicals on digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics associated with methanogenesis. J Sci Food Agric 2010;90:2700-8.
  11. Hatew B, Stringano M, Mueller-Harvey I, et al. Impact of variation in structure of condensed tannins from Sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2016;100:348-60.
  12. Dschaak CM, Williams CM, Holt MS, et al. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2011;94:2508-19.
  13. Pathak AK, Dutta N, Pattanaik AK, et al. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation from tanniferous tree leaves on methane production and efficiency of microbial biomass production in vitro. Anim Nutr Feed Technol 2015;15:91-100.
  14. Williams VM, Porter LJ, Hemingway RW. Molecular weight profiles of proanthocyanicin polymers. Phytochemistry 1983;22:569-72.
  15. Kearl LC. Nutrient requirements of ruminants in developing countries. Logan, UT, USA: Utah State University; 1982. pp. 45-81.
  16. Khan MY, Joshi DC. A new simplified open-circuit respiration equipment for sheep - a note. Indian J Anim Prod 1983;15:34-6.
  17. AOAC. Official methods of analysis (16th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC: AOAC International; 2000.
  18. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97.
  19. Resines JA, Arin MJ, Diez MT. Determination of creatinine and purine derivatives in ruminants' urine by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 1992;607:199-202.
  20. Chen XB, Gomes MJ. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives-an overview of the technical details. Occasional Publication. 1992. Aberdeen, UK: International Feed Resources Unit. Rowett Research Institute; 1995.
  21. Makkar HPS. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on "use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniferous tree foliage". Joint FAO/IAEA working document. Viena, Austria: IAEA; 2000. pp. 1-26.
  22. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical methods. 8th ed. New Delhi, India: East West Press Pvt. Ltd.; 1994.
  23. Ramirez-Restrepo CA, Barry TN, Lopez-Villalobos N, et al. Use of Lotus corniculatus containing condensed tannins to increase lamb and wool production under commercial dry-land and farming conditions without the use of anthelmintics. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004;117:85-105.
  24. Waghorn GC, Shelton ID. The nutritive value of Lotus for sheep. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 1992;52:25-30.
  25. Wang Y, Waghorn GC, Barry TN, Shelton ID. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus upon plasma metabolism of methione, systeine and inorganic sulphate by sheep. Br J Nutr 1994;72:923-35.
  26. Ndluvo LR. Tannins in animal agriculture: friend or foe. In: Proceedings of the South African Society of Animal Science Congress; 2000 July 25-27. pp. 51-2.
  27. Waghorn GC, Shelton ID, McNabb WC. Effects of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on its nutritive value for sheep. 1. Non-Nitrogenous aspects. J Agric Sci Camb 1994;123:99-107.
  28. Waghorn GC, Shelton ID, McNabb WC, McCutcheon SN. Effects of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on its nutritive value for sheep. 2. Nitrogenous aspects. J Agric Sci Camb 1994;123:109-19.
  29. D'Mello JPF, Acamovic T. Leucaena leucocephala in poultry nutrition-a review. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1989;26:1-28.
  30. McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, Morgan CA. In: Animal nutrition. Fifth ed. New York, USA: Longman Scientific and Technical Inc.; 1995.
  31. Barry TN, Manley RT, Duncan SJ. The role of condensed tannins on the nutritional value of Lotus peducculatus for sheep. 4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration. Br J Nutr 1986;55:123-37.
  32. IAEA. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine. Viena, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 1997. pp. 1-49.
  33. Baba ASH, Castro FB, Orskov ER. Partitioning of energy and degradability of browse plants in vitro and the implications of blocking effects of tannins by the addition of polyethylene glycol. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2002;95:93-104.
  34. Ngwa AT, Nsahlai IV, Iji PA. Effect of supplementing bald hay with a dry meal or silage from pods of Acacia sieberiana with or without wheat bran on voluntary intake, digestibility, excretion of purine derivatives, nitrogen utilization and weight gain in South African Merino sheep. Livest Prod Sci 2002;77:253-64.
  35. Kumar S, Dutta N, Pattanaik AK, et al. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and condensed tannins on intake, nutrient metabolism and growth performance of naturally GI infected lambs. Anim Nutr Feed Technol 2014;14:301-10.
  36. McNabb WC, Waghorn GC, Barry TN, Shelton ID. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the digestion and metabolism of methionine, cysteine and inorganic sulphur in sheep. Br J Nutr 1993;70:647-61.
  37. Waghorn GC, Tavendale MH, Woodfield DR. Methanogenesis from forages fed to New Zealand ruminants. Proc NZ Grassland Assoc 2002;64:167-71.
  38. Woodward SL, Waghorn GC, Ulyatt MJ, Lassey KR. Early indications that feeding Lotus will reduce methane emission from ruminants. Proc NZ Anim Prod 2001;61:23-6.
  39. Tavendale MH, Meagher LP, Pacheco D, et al. Methane production from in vitro rumen incubations with Lotus pedunculatus and Medicago sativa, and effects of extractable condensed tannin fractions on methanogenesis. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2005;123-124:403-19.
  40. Waghorn GC, Woodward SL. Ruminant contributions to methane and global warming- a New Zealand perspective. In: Bhatti JS, Lal R, Apps MJ, Price MA, editors. Climate change and managed ecosystems. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Taylor and Francis; 2006. pp. 233-60.
  41. Tiemann T, Wettstein HR, Mayer AC, et al. Influence of tanniferous shrubs (Calliandra calothyrsus and Flemingia macrophylla) in tropical diets on energy metabolism and methane emission of lambs (Abstract). Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition, EAAP Publication No. 124, pp. 617-8. (PUB 2007/3620b) Wageningen Academic Publisher; 2007.
  42. Min BR, McNabb WC, Kemp PD, et al. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus upon reproductive efficiency and wool production in ewes during autumn. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2001;92:185-202.

Cited by

  1. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw vol.31, pp.9, 2018,