Post-prandial decrease in plasma growth hormone levels is not related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in goats

  • Nishihara, Koki (Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University) ;
  • Kobayashi, Ryoko (Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University) ;
  • Suzuki, Yutaka (Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University) ;
  • Sato, Katsuyoshi (Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Bioresource Scienes, Akita Prefectural University) ;
  • Katoh, Kazuo (Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University) ;
  • Roh, Sanggun (Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University)
  • Received : 2016.12.20
  • Accepted : 2017.05.27
  • Published : 2017.12.01


Objective: In the present study, we examined whether the post-prandial reduction in plasma growth hormone (GH) levels is related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in ruminants. Methods: We performed two experiments: intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.2 IU/kg body weight) or glucose (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) was administered to increase the plasma insulin levels in male Shiba goats. Results: In the insulin injection experiment, significant (p<0.05) increase in GH concentrations was observed, 15 to 20 min after the injection; it was accompanied with a significant (p<0.01) increase in cortisol concentrations at 45 to 90 min, when compared to the concentrations in the saline-injected controls. The glucose injection significantly (p<0.05) increased the plasma GH concentration at 20 to 45 min; this was not accompanied by significantly higher cortisol concentrations than were observed for the saline-injected control. Hypoglycemia induced by the insulin injection, which causes the excitation of the adrenal cortex, might be involved in the increase in insulin levels. Conclusion: Based on these results, we conclude that post-prandial increases in plasma insulin or glucose levels do not induce a decrease in GH concentration after feeding in the ruminants.


Growth Hormone;Insulin;Glucose;Goats


Supported by : JSPS


  1. Moseley WM, Alaniz GR, Claflin WH, Krabill LF. Food intake alters the serum growth hormone response to bovine growth hormonereleasing factor in meal-fed Holstein steers. J Endocrinol 1988;117:253-9.
  2. Matsunaga N, Arakawa NT, Goka T, et al. Effects of ruminal infusion of volatile fatty acids on plasma concentration of growth hormone and insulin in sheep. Domest Anim Endocrinol 1999;17:17-27.
  3. McMahon CD, Chapin LT, Lookingland KJ, Radcliff RP, Tucker HA. Feeding reduces activity of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 2000;223:210-7.
  4. Ishiwata H, Nagano M, Sasaki Y, Chen C, Katoh K. Short-chain fatty acids inhibit the release and content of growth hormone in anterior pituitary cells of the goat. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2000;118:400-6.
  5. Katoh K, Ohata Y, Ishiwata H. Suppressing effects of short-chain fatty acids on growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-induced GH release in isolated anterior pituitary cells of goats. Domest Anim Endocrinol 1999;17:85-93.
  6. Matsunaga N, Nam KT, Kuhara T, et al. Inhibitory effect of volatile fatty acids on GRF-induced GH secretion in sheep. Endocr J 1993;40:529-37.
  7. Matsunaga N, Kubota I, Roh SG, et al. Effect of mesenteric venous volatile fatty acids (VFA) infusion on GH secretion in sheep. Endocr J 1997;44:707-14.
  8. Gahete MD, Cordoba-Chacon J, Lin Q, et al. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit GH synthesis and release in vitro and in vivo by separate mechanisms. Endocrinology 2013;154:2410-20.
  9. Luque RM, Kineman RD. Impact of obesity on the growth hormone axis: evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of hyperinsulinemia on pituitary function. Endocrinology 2006;147:2754-63.
  10. De Marinis L, Bianchi A, Mancini A, et al. Growth hormone secretion and leptin in morbid obesity before and after biliopancreatic diversion: relationships with insulin and body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:174-80.
  11. Lanzi R, Luzi L, Caumo A, et al. Elevated insulin levels contribute to the reduced growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in obese subjects. Metab: Clin Exp 1999;48:1152-6.
  12. Melmed S. Insulin suppresses growth hormone secretion by rat pituitary cells. J Clin Invest 1984;73:1425-33.
  13. Yamashita S, Melmed S. Effects of insulin on rat anterior pituitary cells. Inhibition of growth hormone secretion and mRNA levels. Diabetes 1986;35:440-7.
  14. Roh SG, Koiwa K, Sato K, et al. Actions of intravenous injections of AVP and oxytocin on plasma ACTH, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations in goats. Anim Sci J 2014;85:286-92.
  15. Sato K, Takahashi T, Kobayashi Y, et al. Apelin is involved in postprandial responses and stimulates secretion of arginine-vasopressin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and growth hormone in the ruminant. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2012;42:165-72.
  16. Suzuki Y, Song SH, Sato K, et al. Chemerin analog regulates energy metabolism in sheep. Anim Sci J 2012;83:263-7.
  17. Katoh K, Yoshida M, Kobayashi Y, et al. Responses induced by argininevasopressin injection in the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone and metabolites around weaning time in goats. J Endocrinol 2005;187:249-56.
  18. Katoh K, Asari M, Ishiwata H, Sasaki Y, Obara Y. Saturated fatty acids suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2004;137:357-64.
  19. Caraty A, Grino M, Locatelli A, et al. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulates corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin secretion into hypophysial portal blood of conscious, unrestrained rams. J Clin Invest 1990;85:1716-21.
  20. Fukumori R, Mita T, Sugino T, et al. Effects of glucose and volatile fatty acids on blood ghrelin concentrations in calves before and after weaning. J Anim Sci 2012;90:4839-45.
  21. Familari M, Smith AI, Smith R, Funder JW. Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to ACTH release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. 1. In vitro studies. Neuroendocrinology 1989;50:152-7.
  22. Fora MA, Butler TG, Rose JC, Schwartz J. Adrenocorticotropin secretion by fetal sheep anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells in vitro: effects of gestation and adrenalectomy. Endocrinology 1996;137:3394-400.
  23. Hasegawa N, Sugiwaka T, Kawamura T, Katoh K. Changes in serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations after administration of argininevasopressin (AVP) in dairy cattle. Anim Sci Technol 1996;67:591-2.
  24. Priego T, Granado M, Ibanez de Caceres I, et al. Endotoxin at low doses stimulates pituitary GH whereas it decreases IGF-I and IGFbinding protein-3 in rats. J Endocrinol 2003;179:107-17.
  25. Raza J, Massoud AF, Hindmarsh PC, Robinson IC, Brook CG. Direct effects of corticotrophin-releasing hormone on stimulated growth hormone secretion. Clin Endocrinol 1998;48:217-22.
  26. Hanew K. The mechanism of arginine- and insulin-induced GH release in humans. Endocr J 2000;47 (Suppl):S23-7.
  27. Thomas GB, Mercer JE, Karalis T, et al. Effect of restricted feeding on the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), gonadotropins, and prolactin (PRL) in plasma, and on the amounts of messenger ribonucleic acid for GH, gonadotropin subunits, and PRL in the pituitary glands of adult ovariectomized ewes. Endocrinology 1990;126:1361-7.
  28. Frohman LA, Downs TR, Clarke IJ, Thomas GB. Measurement of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in hypothalamic-portal plasma of unanesthetized sheep. Spontaneous secretion and response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. J Clin Invest 1990;86:17-24.
  29. Mueller KM, Themanns M, Friedbichler K, et al. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012;361:1-11.
  30. Sartin JL, Cummins KA, Kemppainen RJ, et al. Glucagon, insulin, and growth hormone responses to glucose infusion in lactating dairy cows. Am J Physiol 1985;248:E108-14.
  31. Reynaert R, De Paepe M, Marcus S, Peeters G. Influence of serum free fatty acid levels on growth hormone secretion in lactating cows. J Endocrinol 1975;66:213-24.
  32. Katoh K. Developmental and nutritional control of the somatotropic axis in the ruminant. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2001;14(Suppl Issue):91-9.
  33. Katoh K, Ishiwata H. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration and growth hormone release induced by nutrients in primary cultured anterior pituitary cells of goats. Anim Sci Technol (Japan) 1998:69;994-1003.
  34. Shoemaker WC, Ashmore J, Carruthers PJ, Schulman M. Effect of insulin on rate of hepatic uptake of NEFA. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1960;103:585-8.
  35. Goodman HM. Effects of chronic growth hormone treatment on lipogenesis by rat adipose tissue. Endocrinology 1963;72:95-9.