DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

  • Choi, Yohan ;
  • Hosseindoust, Abdolreza ;
  • Shim, YoungHo ;
  • Kim, Minju ;
  • Kumar, Alip ;
  • Oh, Seungmin ;
  • Kim, YoungHwa ;
  • Chae, Byung-Jo
  • Received : 2017.05.23
  • Accepted : 2017.09.12
  • Published : 2017.11.01

Abstract

Objective: The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of $30.5^{\circ}C$. Methods: A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein). Results: There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion: An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

Keywords

Heat Stress;Lactating Sows;Litter Performance;Nutrient Densified Diet

References

  1. Quiniou N, Noblet J. Influence of high ambient temperatures on performance of multiparous lactating sows. J Anim Sci 1999;77:2124-34. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7782124x
  2. Muns R, Manzanilla EG, Manteca X, Gasa J. Effect of gestation management system on gilt and piglet performance. Anim Welf 2014;23:343-51. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.23.3.343
  3. Renaudeau D, Quiniou N, Noblet J. Effects of exposure to high ambient temperature and dietary protein level on performance of multiparous lactating sows. J Anim Sci 2001;79:1240-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7951240x
  4. Williams AM, Safranski TJ, Spiers DE, et al. Effects of a controlled heat stress during late gestation, lactation, and after weaning on thermoregulation, metabolism, and reproduction of primiparous sows. J Anim Sci 2013;91:2700-14. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-6055
  5. Dourmad JY, Noblet J, Etienne M. Effect of protein and lysine supply on performance, nitrogen balance, and body composition changes of sows during lactation. J Anim Sci 1998;76:542-50. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.762542x
  6. Spencer J D, Boyd RD, Cabrera R, Allee GL. Early-weaning to reduce tissue mobilization in lactating sows and provision of milk replacement to enhance pig wean weight during extreme heat stress. J Anim Sci 2003;81:2041-52. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8182041x
  7. Boyd RD, Touchette KJ, Castro GC, et al. Recent advances in amino acid and energy nutrition of prolific sows-review. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2000;13:1638-52. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.1638
  8. Kong LJ, Wang AG, Fu JL, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is involved in weaning to estrus of primiparous sows by regulating the expression of hormone genes in hypothalamuspituitary-ovary axis. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2007;20:340-50. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.340
  9. Omtvedt IT, Nelson RE, Edwards RL, Stephens DF, Turman EJ. Influence of heat stress during early, mid and late pregnancy of gilts. J Anim Sci 1971;32:312-7. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1971.322312x
  10. O'Grady JF, Lynch PB, Kearney PA. Voluntary feed intake by lactating sows. Livest Prod Sci 1985;12:355-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(85)90134-4
  11. Pettigrew JE, Moser RL. Fat in swine nutrition. In: Miller ER, Ullrey DE, Lewis AJ, editors. Boston, MA, USA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991. pp. 133-45.
  12. Stahly TS, Cromwell GL, Simpson WS. Effects of level and source of supplemental fat in the lactation diet of sows on the performance of pigs from birth to market weight. J Anim Sci 1980;51:352-60. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.512352x
  13. Averette LA, Odle J, Monaco MH, Donovan SM. Dietary fat during pregnancy and lactation increases milk fat and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations and improves neonatal growth rates in swine. J Nutr 1999;129:2123-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129.12.2123
  14. Averette Gatlin LA, Odle J, Soede J, Hansen JA. Dietary mediumor long- chain triglycerides improve body condition of lean-genotype sows and increase suckling pig growth. J Anim Sci 2002;80:38-44. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80138x
  15. Boyd RD, Moser BD, Peo ER, Lewis AJ, Johnson RK. Effect of tallow and choline chloride addition to the diet of sows milk composition, milk yield and preweaning pig performance. J Anim Sci 1982;54:1-7. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.5411
  16. Cieslak DG, Leibbrandt VD, Benevenga NJ. Effect of a high fat supplement in late gestation and lactation on piglet survival and performance. J Anim Sci 1983;57:954-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.574954x
  17. NRC. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC: Natl Acad Press; 2012.
  18. Baumgard LH, Rhoads JRP. Effects of heat stress on postabsorptive metabolism and energetics. Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2013;1:311-37. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-031412-103644
  19. SAS. Statistical Analysis System. Users Guide: Statistics, Version 8.2, Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute; 2012.
  20. Rosero DS, Van Heugten E, Odle J, et al. Sow and litter response to supplemental dietary fat in lactation diets during high ambient temperatures. J Anim Sci 2012;90:550-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4049
  21. Renaudeau D, Noblet J. Effects of exposure to high ambient temperature and dietary protein level on sow milk production and performance of piglets. J Anim Sci 2001;79:1540-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7961540x
  22. Silva BAN, Noblet J, Donzele JL, et al. Effects of dietary protein level and amino acid supplementation on performance of mixed-parity lactating sows in a tropical humid climate. J Anim Sci 2009;87:4003-12. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1176
  23. Renaudeau D, Collin A, Yahav S, et al. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal 2012;6:707-28. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111002448
  24. Stadler KJ. Pork industry productivity analysis. Des Moines, IA, USA: National Pork Board; 2013.
  25. Lauridsen C, Danielsen V. Lactational dietary fat levels and sources influence milk composition and performance of sows and their progeny. Livest Prod Sci 2004;91:95-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.07.014
  26. Briggs JL, Maier DE, Watkins BA, Behnke KC. Effect of ingredients and processing parameters on pellet quality. Poult Sci 1999;78:1464-71. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.10.1464
  27. DeRouchey JM, Hancock JD, Hines RH, et al. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance on the chemistry of blood and urine in lactating sows and sow litter performance. J Anim Sci 2003;81:3067-74. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.81123067x
  28. Van den Brand H, Heetkamp MJW, Soede NM, Schrama JW, Kemp B. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source. J Anim Sci 2000;78:1520-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7861520x
  29. Tritton SM, King RH, Cambell RG, Edwards AC, Hughes PE. The effects of dietary protein and energy levels of diets offered during lactation on the lactational and subsequent reproductive performance of first-litter sows. Anim Sci 1996;62:573-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800015125
  30. Strathe AV, Bruun TS, Hansen CF. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization. Animal 2017;15:1-9.
  31. Kemp B, Soede NM. Should weaning be the start of the reproductive cycle in hyper-prolific cows? A physiological view. Reprod Domest Anim 2012;47:320-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02092.x
  32. King RH, Martin GB. Relationships between protein intake during lactation, LH levels and oestrous activity in first-litter sows. Anim Reprod Sci 1989;19:283-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(89)90101-2
  33. Flowers B, Day BN. Alterations in gonadotropin secretion and ovarian function in prepubertal gilts by elevated environmental temperature. Biol Reprod 1990;42:465-71. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod42.3.465

Cited by

  1. Effects of heat stress on piglet production/performance parameters vol.50, pp.6, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1633-4

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration