In ovo vaccination using Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis

  • Lillehoj, Hyun Soon (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) ;
  • Jang, Seung Ik (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) ;
  • Panebra, Alfredo (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) ;
  • Lillehoj, Erik Peter (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore) ;
  • Dupuis, Laurent (Seppic) ;
  • Arous, Juliette Ben (Seppic) ;
  • Lee, Seung Kyoo (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) ;
  • Oh, Sung Taek (Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture)
  • Received : 2017.01.25
  • Accepted : 2017.03.16
  • Published : 2017.10.01


Objective: The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE) were investigated using an Eimeria maxima (E. maxima)/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed. Methods: Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with $100{\mu}L$ of phosphate-buffered saline, profilin, profilin plus necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB), profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106), and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101). After post-hatch birds were challenged with our NE experimental disease model, body weights, intestinal lesions, serum antibody levels to NetB, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were measured. Results: Chickens in ovo vaccinated with recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS106 and recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS101 showed significantly increased body weight gains and reduced gut damages compared with the profilin-only group, respectively. Greater antibody response to NetB toxin were observed in the profilin plus NetB/IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB/IMS 101 groups compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, diminished levels of transcripts encoding for proinflammatory cytokines such as lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ factor, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interleukin-8 were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens in ovo injected with profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 101 compared with profilin protein alone bird. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Montanide IMS adjuvants potentiate host immunity to experimentally-induced avian NE when administered in ovo in conjunction with the profilin and NetB proteins, and may reduce disease pathology by attenuating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in disease pathogenesis.


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