DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Jeong, JinYoung (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Baek, Youl-Chang (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Oh, Young Kyun (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Minseok (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • So, Kyung Min (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Min Ji (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Dong Woon (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Sung Kwon (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University) ;
  • Lee, Hyun-Jeong (Animal Nutritional and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA)
  • Received : 2017.04.25
  • Accepted : 2017.06.27
  • Published : 2017.10.01

Abstract

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW) calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods: Three EW groups were established (each n = 12) in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1), milk replacer+concentrate+roughage (T2), or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3); a control group (n = 12) was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group) were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results: Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and intramuscular fat (IMF) than the control (p<0.05). Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05). In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3), higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05). Conclusion: Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.

Keywords

Calf;Early Weaning;Starch;Rumen Development;Ultrasound

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Livestock Research Institute

References

  1. Lucas A. Programming by early nutrition a man. Ciba Found Symp 1991;156:38-50.
  2. Arnett AM, Dikeman ME, Daniel MJ, et al. Effects ofvitamin A supplementation and weaning age on serum and liver retinol concentrations, carcass traits, and lipid composition in market beef cattle. Meat Sci 2009;81:596-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.10.017
  3. Schoonmarker JP, Cecava MJ, Faulkner FL, et al. Effect of source of energy and rate of growth on performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and serum glucose and insulin of early-weaned steers. J Anim Sci 2003;81:843-55. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.814843x
  4. Myers SE, Faulkner DB, Ireland FA, Berger LL, Parrett DF. Production systems comparing early weaning to normal weaning with or without creep feeding for beef steers. J Anim Sci 1999;77:300-10. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.772300x
  5. Bach AA, Gimenez J, Juaristi L, Ahedo J. Effects of physical from of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:3028-33. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-761
  6. Cheng KJ, McAllister TA, Popp JD, et al. A review of bloat in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 1998;76:299-308. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.761299x
  7. Nagaraja TG, Chengappa MM. Liver abscess in feedlot cattle: A review. J Anim Sci 1998;76:287-98. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.761287x
  8. National Research Council (NRC). Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
  9. Suarez BJ, Van Reenen CG, Stockhofe N, Dijkstra J, Gerrits WJJ. Effect of roughage source and roughage to concentrate ratio on animal performance and rumen development in veal calves. J Dairy Sci 2007; 90:2390-403. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-524
  10. Sato T, Hidaka K, Mishima T, et al. Effect of sugar supplementation on rumen protozoa profile and papillae development in retarded growth calves. J Vet Med Sci 2010;72:1471-4. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.09-0399
  11. Kristensen NB, Sehested J, Jensen SK, Vestergaard M. Effect of milk allowance on concentrate intake, ruminal environment, and ruminal development in milk-fed holstein calves. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:4346-55. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-885
  12. Lowman BG, Scott NA, Somerville SH. Condition scoring for cattle. Tech. Bull. No. 6, Edinburgh, UK: East of Scotland College of Agriculture;1976.
  13. McGavin MD, Morrill JL. Scannig electron microscopy of ruminal papillae in calves fed various amounts and forms of roughage. Am J Vet Res 1976;37:497-508.
  14. Lesmeister KE, Heinrichs AJ. Effects of corn processing on growth characteristics, rumen development and rumen parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:3439-50. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73479-7
  15. Suarez BJ, Van Reenen CG, Gerrits WJJ, et al. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets:II. Rumen development. J Dairy Sci 2006;89:4376-86. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72484-5
  16. Kato D, Suzuki Y, Haga S, et al. Utilization of digital differential display to identify differentially expressed genes related to rumen development. Anim Sci J 2016;87:584-90. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12448
  17. Moya D, Mazzenga A, Holtshausen L, et al. Feeding behavior and ruminal acidosis in beef cattle offered a total mixed ration or dietary components separately. J Anim Sci 2001;89:520-30.
  18. Sarwar M, Firkins JL, Eastridge ML. Effect of replacing neutral detergent fibre of forage with soy hulls and corn gluten feed for dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:1006-17. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78250-7
  19. Labussiere E, Dubois S, van Milgen J, Bertrand G, Noblet J. Effect of solid feed on energy and protein utilization in milkfed veal calves. J Anim Sci 2009;87:1106-19. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.008-1318
  20. Brown MS, Ponce CH, Pulikanti R. Adaptation of beef cattle to highconcentrate diets: Perfrormance and ruminal metabolism. J Anim Sci 2006;84:E25-E33. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8413_supplE25x
  21. Roth BA, Keil NM, Gygax L, Hillmann E. Influence of weaning method on health status and rumen development in dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2009;92:645-56. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1153
  22. Sweeney BC, Rushen JP, Weary DM, de Passille AMB. Duration of weaning, starter intake, and weight gain of dairy calves fed large amounts of milk. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:148-52. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2427
  23. Johnson DE, Johnson KA, Baldwin RL. Changes in liver and gastrointestinal tract energy demands in response to physiological workload in ruminants. J Nutr 1990;120:649-55. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/120.6.649
  24. Seal CJ, Reynolds CK. Nutritional implications of gastrointestinal and liver metabolism in ruminants. Nutr Res Rev 1993;6:185-208. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR19930012
  25. Ortigues I, Doreau M. Responses of the splanchnic tissues of ruminants to changes in intake: absorption of digestion end products, tissue mass, metabolic activity and implications to whole animal energy metabolism. Ann Zootech 1995;44:321-46.
  26. Khan MA, Lee HJ, Lee WS, et al. Starch source evaluation in calf starter: II. Ruminal parameters, rumen development, nutrient digestibilities, and nitrogen utilization in Holstein calves. J Dairy Sci 2008; 91:1140-49. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0337
  27. Warner RG, Flatt WP. Physiology of digestion in the ruminant. London UK: Butterworths Pub. Co.; 1965.
  28. Bartle SJ, Preston RL. Roughage level and limited maximum intake regimens for feedlot steers. J Anim Sci 1992;70:3293-303. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70113293x
  29. Connor EE, Baldwin RL, Li CJ, Li RW, Chung H. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning identifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth. Funct Integr Genomics 2013;13:133-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-012-0308-x
  30. Wang S, Zhou Y, Andreyev O, et al. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia. Exp Cell Res 2014;323:56-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.02.015
  31. Schoonmaker JP, Loerch SC, Fluharty FL, Zerby HN, Turner TB. Effect of age at feedlot entry on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls and steers. J Anim Sci 2002;80:2247-54.
  32. Smith SB, Crouse JD. Relative contributions of acetate, lactate and glucose to lipogenesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue. J Nutr 1984;114:792-800. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/114.4.792
  33. Brown EG, Vandehaar MJ, Daniels KM, et al. Effects of increasing energy and protein intake on body growth and carcass composition of heifer calves. J Dairy Sci 2005;88:585-94. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72722-3

Cited by

  1. Effects of High Levels of Nutrients on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Cattle vol.38, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2018.38.3.180