DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of energy density and virginiamycin supplementation in diets on growth performance and digestive function of finishing steers

  • Navarrete, Juan D. (Department of Nutrition and Biotechnology of Ruminants, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias-UABC) ;
  • Montano, Martin F. (Department of Nutrition and Biotechnology of Ruminants, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias-UABC) ;
  • Raymundo, Constantino (Department of Nutrition and Biotechnology of Ruminants, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias-UABC) ;
  • Salinas-Chavira, Jaime (Department of Animal Nutrition, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas) ;
  • Torrentera, Noemi (Department of Nutrition and Biotechnology of Ruminants, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias-UABC) ;
  • Zinn, Richard A. (Department of Animal Science, University of California)
  • Received : 2016.10.25
  • Accepted : 2017.03.06
  • Published : 2017.10.01

Abstract

Objective: This study was determined the influence of virginiamycin supplementation on growth-performance and characteristics of digestion of cattle with decreasing dietary net energy value of the diet for maintenance ($NE_m$) from 2.22 to 2.10 Mcal/kg. Methods: Eighty crossbred beef steers ($298.2{\pm}6.3kg$) were used in a 152-d performance evaluation consisting of a 28-d adaptation period followed by a 124-d growing-finishing period. During the 124-d period steers were fed either a lesser energy dense (LED, $2.10Mcal/kg\;NE_m$) or higher energy dense (HED, $2.22Mcal/kg\;NE_m$) diet. Diets were fed with or without 28 mg/kg (dry matter [DM] basis) virginiamycin in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Four Holstein steers ($170.4{\pm}5.6kg$) with cannulas in the rumen (3.8 cm internal diameter) and proximal duodenum were used in $4{\times}4$ Latin square experiment to study treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Results: Neither diet energy density nor virginiamycin affected average daily gain (p>0.10). As expected, dry matter intake and gain efficiency were greater (p<0.01) for LED- than for HED-fed steers. Virginiamycin did not affect estimated net energy value of the LED diet. Virginiamycin increased estimated NE of the HED diet. During daylight hours when the temperature humidity index averaged $81.3{\pm}2.7$, virginiamycin decreased (p<0.05) ruminal temperature. Virginiamycin did not influence (p>0.10) ruminal or total tract digestion. Ruminal (p = 0.02) and total tract digestion (p<0.01) of organic matter, and digestible energy (p<0.01) were greater for HED vs LED. Ruminal microbial efficiency was lower (p<0.01) for HED vs LED diets. Conclusion: The positive effect of virginiamycin on growth performance of cattle is due to increased efficiency of energy utilization, as effects of virginiamycin on characteristics of digestion were not appreciable. Under conditions of high ambient temperature virginiamycin may reduce body temperature.

Keywords

Virginiamycin;Energy Concentration;Feedlot;Cattle;Performance;Digestion

Acknowledgement

Supported by : University of California

References

  1. Rogers JA, Branine ME, Miller CR, et al. Effects of dietary virginiamycin on performance and liver abscess incidence in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 1995;73:9-20. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7319
  2. Montano MF, Manriquez OM, Salinas-Chavira J, Torrentera N, Zinn RA. Effects of monensin and virginiamycin supplementation in finishing diets with distiller dried grains plus solubles on growth performance and digestive function of steers. J Appl Anim Res 2014;43:417-25.
  3. Salinas-Chavira J, Lenin J, Ponce E, Sanchez U, Torrentera N, Zinn RA. Comparative effects of virginiamycin supplementation on characteristics of growth performance, dietary energetics, and digestion of calf-fed Holstein steers. J Anim Sci 2009;87:4101-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-1959
  4. Salinas-Chavira J, Barreras A, Plascencia A, et al. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers. J Anim Sci 2016;94:4276-86. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2016-0576
  5. NRC. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
  6. NRC. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 6th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1984.
  7. Zinn RA, Shen, Y. An evaluation of ruminally degradable intake protein and metabolizable amino acid requirements of feedlot calves. J Anim Sci 1998;76:1280-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7651280x
  8. USDA. United States Standards for Grading of Carcass Beef. Washington, DC: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA; 1997.
  9. Murphey CE, Hallett DK, Tyler WE, Pierce Jr JC. Estimating yields of retail cuts from beef carcasses. Presented at the 62nd Meeting of the American Society of Animal Production; Chicago, November 26, 1960.
  10. Zinn RA, Plascencia A. Interaction of whole cottonseed and supplemental fat on digestive function in cattle. J Anim Sci 1993;71:11-7. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.71111x
  11. Zinn RA. Comparative feeding value of supplemental fat in finishing diets for feedlot steers supplemented with and without monensin. J Anim Sci 1988;66:213-27. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1988.661213x
  12. Bergen WG, Purser DB, Cline JH. Effect of ration on the nutritive quality of rumen microbial protein. J Anim Sci 1968;27:1497-501. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1968.2751497x
  13. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. Arlington, VA: AOAC International; 1984.
  14. Goering HK, Van Soest PJ. Forage fiber analyses (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). Washington, DC: Agric Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, 1970.
  15. Hill FN, Anderson DL. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determinations with growing chicks. J Nutr 1958; 64:587-603. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/64.4.587
  16. Zinn RA, Owens FN. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Can J Anim Sci 1986;66:157-66. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas86-017
  17. Zinn RA. Influence of flake density on the comparative feeding value of steam-flaked corn for feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 1990;68:767-75. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.683767x
  18. Orskov ER, MacLeod NA, Kyle DJ. Flow of nitrogen from the rumen and abomasum in cattle and sheep given protein-free nutrients by intragrastric infusion. Br J Nutr 1986;56:241-8. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19860103
  19. Wolin MJ. A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. J Dairy Sci 1960;43:1452-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(60)90348-9
  20. Zinn RA, Barreras A, Owens FN, Plascencia A. Performance by feedlot steers and heifers: daily gain, mature body weight, dry matter intake, and dietary energetics. J Anim Sci 2008;86:2680-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0561
  21. Salinas-Chavira J, Alvarez E, Montano MF, Zinn RA. Influence of forage NDF level, source and pelletizing on growth performance, dietary energetics, and characteristics of digestive function for feedlot cattle. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2013;183:106-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.05.004
  22. Thom EC. The discomfort index. Weatherwise 1959;12:57-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/00431672.1959.9926960
  23. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Livestock hot weather stress. Operations manual Letter C-31-76. Kansas City, MO, USA: NOAA; 1976.
  24. Mader TL, Davis MS, Brown-Brandl T. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 2006;84:712-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843712x
  25. Belay T, Teeter RG. Virginiamycin and caloric density effects on live performance, blood serum metabolite concentration, and carcass composition of broilers reared in thermoneutral and cycling ambient temperatures. Poult Sci 1996;75:1383-92. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0751383
  26. Zinn RA. Influence of forage level on response of feedlot steers to salinomicyn supplementation. J Anim Sci 1986;63:2005-12. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6362005x
  27. Zinn RA, Plascencia A, Barajas R. Interaction of forage level and monensin in diets for feedlot cattle growth performance and digestive function. J Anim Sci 1994;72:2209‐15. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.7292209x
  28. Calderon-Cortes JF, Zinn RA. Influence of dietary forage level and forage coarseness of grind on growth performance and digestive function in feedlot steers. J Anim Sci 1996;74:2310-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74102310x
  29. Manriquez, OM, Montano MF, Calderon JF, et al. Influence of wheat straw pelletizing and inclusion rate in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion for feedlot cattle. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016;29:823-9.
  30. Carrasco R, Arrizon AA, Plascencia A, Torrentera NG, Zinn RA. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics. J Anim Sci 2013;91:1801-10. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5260