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Lower serum extracellular superoxide dismutase levels are associated with polyneuropathy in recent-onset diabetes

  • Strom, Alexander (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Kaul, Kirti (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Bruggemann, Jutta (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Ziegler, Iris (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Rokitta, Ilka (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Puttgen, Sonja (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Szendroedi, Julia (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Mussig, Karsten (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Roden, Michael (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • Ziegler, Dan (Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research) ;
  • GDS Group (The GDS Group)
  • Received : 2017.02.20
  • Accepted : 2017.05.02
  • Published : 2017.11.30

Abstract

Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic neuropathy, but translational evidence in recent-onset diabetes is scarce. We aimed to determine whether markers of systemic oxidative stress are associated with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) in recent-onset diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, we measured serum concentrations of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in 107 type 1 and 215 type 2 diabetes patients from the German Diabetes Study baseline cohort and 37 glucose-tolerant individuals (controls). DSPN was defined by electrophysiological and clinical criteria (Toronto Consensus, 2011). SOD3 and GSH concentrations were lower in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with concentrations in controls (P<0.0001). In contrast, the TBARS concentration was higher in participants with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes compared with levels in controls (P<0.0001). In addition, the SOD3 concentration was higher in participants with type 1 diabetes compared to concentrations in those with type 2 diabetes (P<0.0001). A low SOD3 concentration was associated with DSPN in individuals with type 1 diabetes (${\beta}=-0.306$, P = 0.002), type 2 diabetes (${\beta}=-0.164$, P = 0.017), and in both groups combined (${\beta}=-0.206$, P = 0.0003). Lower SOD3 concentrations were associated with decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in men and, to a lesser degree, with reduced sensory NCV in women with diabetes. In conclusion, several biomarkers of oxidative stress are altered in recent-onset diabetes, with only a lower SOD3 concentration being linked to the presence of DSPN, suggesting a role for reduced extracellular antioxidative defense against superoxide in the early development of DSPN.

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References

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