Analytical Modeling for Reinforced Concrete Columns with Relaxed Section Details

  • Kim, Taewan (Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Chu, Yurim (Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Park, Hong-Gun (Department of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2017.07.21
  • Accepted : 2017.09.19
  • Published : 2017.09.30


In earthquake engineering, dynamic analyses are usually conducted by using a nonlinear analytical model of the entire building in order to identify the performance against earthquakes. At the same time, a large number of dynamic analyses are required to consider uncertainties on analytical models and ground motions. Therefore, it is necessary for the analytical model to be adequate, that is to say, the runtime should not be too long as the entire building is modeled to be in much detail, or the nonlinear model should not yield outputs very far from the actual ones by excluding important behaviors too much. The analytical model is usually developed based on experimental results, which have been already conducted for reinforced concrete columns with relaxed details. Therefore, this study aimed at making analytical models to be able to simulate the hysteretic behavior of the columns simply and easily. The analytical model utilizes a lumped hinge model to represent nonlinear moment-rotation hysteretic behavior of RC columns, which is feasible for nonlinear dynamic analyses usually conducted in earthquake engineering and for matching the analytical model to test results. For the analytical model, elements and material models provided by OpenSees are utilized. The analytical model can define the envelope curve, pinching, and unloading stiffness deterioration, but shortcoming of this model is not to be able to consider axial force-moment interaction directly and to simulate strength deterioration after post-capping completely. However, the analytical model can still represent test results well by considering that the goal of this study is to propose a general way to represent the hysteretic behavior of RC columns with relaxed details, not to provide parameters for a refined hysteretic model that can be just applied case by case.


Supported by : Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport


  1. Altoonatash, A. (2004) Simulation and damage models for performance assessment of reinforced concrete beam-column joints. Dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford
  2. ASCE/SEI 41-13. (2013) Seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing buildings. Virginia, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers, p.555.
  3. Haselton, C.B., Liel, A.B., Taylor Lange, S., and Deierlein, G.G. (2008) Beam-Column Element Model Calibrated for Predicting Flexural Response Leading to Global Collapse of RC Frame Buildings, PEER Report 2007/03, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California.
  4. Ibarra L.F., & Medina R.A., and Krawinkler, H. (2005) Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(12), 1489-1511.
  5. KBC2016. (2016) Korean building code-structural. Seoul, Korea: Architectural Institute of Korea.
  6. Kim, C., Eom, T., Park, H., Kim, T. (2016) Seismic Performance of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections for Low-Rise Buildings. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, 32(3), 19-32.
  7. Kim, C., Park, H., Eom, T., Kim, T. (2015) Effects of Tie Details on Seismic Performance of RC Columns Subjected to Low Compression Loads. Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, 19(4), 195-205.
  8. Lignos, D. (2008) Sidesway Collapse of Deteriorating Structural Systems under Seismic Excitation. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
  9. Lignos, D.G., Krawinkler, H. (2013) Development and Utilization of Structural Component Databases for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering, Journal of Structural Engineering, 139(8), 1382-1394.
  10. Lowes L.N., Mitra N., and Altoontash A. (2003b), A Beam-Column Joint Model for Simulating the Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center report, p.66.
  11. Medina, R., & Krawinkler, H. (2003) Seismic Demands for Nondeteriorating Frame Structures and Their Dependence on Ground Motions, Report No. TR 144, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, and PEER Report 2003/15, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California.
  12. OpenSees. (2006) Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation. [online] Available at:
  13. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. (2003) Structural Performance Database, University of California, Berkeley, Available from : and (March 10, 2005).
  14. Park, Y.J. and Ang, A.H.-S. (1985) Mechanistic seismic damage model for reinforced concrete, Journal of Structural Engineering. 111(4), 722-739.
  15. PEER/ATC-72-1. (2010) Modeling and Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Design and Analysis of Tall Buildings, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, PEER Report 2010/111, University of California, Berkeley, California.
  16. Stevens N.J., Uzumeri, S.M. and Collins, M.P. (1991) Reinforced-Concrete Subjected to Reversed-Cyclic Shear - Experiments and Constitutive Model. ACI Structural Journal, 88(2), 135-146.