DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Analysis of Binding Media Used in Mural Painting of Temple Wall by Pyrolysis/GC/MS and IR

열분해/GC/MS와 IR을 이용한 사찰 벽화 시편 교착제 분석

  • Park, Jongseo (Cultural Heritage Conservation Science Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Lee, Jeong Won (Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage)
  • 박종서 (국립문화재연구소 문화재보존과학센터) ;
  • 이정원 (국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실)
  • Received : 2017.07.21
  • Accepted : 2017.09.07
  • Published : 2017.10.20

Abstract

A mural was discovered in the Ssanggyesa temple located in Jindo island, during repair of the Daeungjeon Hall. A study was conducted to determine the binding medium used for preparing the mural. Pyrolysis/GC/MS and IR spectrometry were used to analyze a painting specimen. Direct approach and on-line methylation approach were attempted for the pyrolysis/GC/MS. In IR analysis, the spectra of the specimen were found to be different from those of Asian lacquer, yellow lacquer, animal glue, and acrylic emulsion resin. They were also not identical to the standard IR spectra of drying oils such as linseed oil. Pyrolysis/GC/MS results of the specimen were different from those of Asian lacquer, yellow lacquer, animal glue, and acrylic emulsion resin. In the mean time, palmitic acid, octadecanoic acid, nonanedioic acid, and octadecenoic acid, which are characteristic pyrolysis products of dried drying oil, were detected. In addition, the pyrolysis/GC/MS chromatograms of the specimen and dried drying oil were also very similar. Therefore, it was concluded that the painting was prepared using drying oil as a binding medium.

References

  1. Bitossi, G., Giorgi, R., Mauro, M., Salvadori, B. and Dei, L., 2005, Spectroscopic techniques in cultural heritage conservation: a survey. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 40, 187-228. https://doi.org/10.1081/ASR-200054370
  2. Cappitelli, F. and Koussiaki, F., 2006, THM-GCMS and FTIR for the investigation of paints in Picasso's Still Life, weeping woman and nude woman in a red armchair from the Tate collection, London. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 75, 200-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2005.05.008
  3. Casoli, A., Musini, P.C., and Palla, G., 1996, Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach to the problem of characterizing binding media in paintings. Journal of Chromatography A, 731, 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01194-3
  4. Casadio, F., Giangualano, I. and Pique, F., 2004, Organic materials in wall paintings: the historical and analytical literature. Studies in Conservation, 49(1), 63-80.
  5. Casadio, F. and Toniolo, L., 2001, The analysis of polychrome works of art: 40 years of infrared spectroscopic investigations. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2, 71-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1296-2074(01)01107-4
  6. Chiavari, G. and Prati, S., 2003, Analytical pyrolysis as diagnostic tool in the investigation of works of art. Chromatographia, 58, 543-554.
  7. Colombini, M.P. and Modugno, F., 2009, Organic mass spectrometry in art and archaeology. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 303-326.
  8. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea, 2015, Request on the assistance in the examination of Dancheong and mural painting at Ssanggye-sa temple in Jin-do island(an official document).
  9. Das, R.S. and Agrawal, Y.K., 2011, Raman spectroscopy: recent advancements, techniques and applications. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 57, 163-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2011.08.003
  10. Kang, J.E., 2010, An estimation of the characteristics and the analytical component on the mural pigments of Mireukjeon Geumsansa Gimje, Korea. Master's thesis, Kongju National University, Gongju, 44-55. (in Korean with English abstract)
  11. Kim, Y.S., Lee, S.J., Choi, I.S., Jin, B.H. and Lee, H.S., 2014, Study on the material characteristic of Baekeuikwaneum (the White-robed Buddhist Goddess of Mercy) wall-painting of Bogwangmyungjun in Wibongsa, Wanju. Journal of Conservation Science, 30(1), 55-65. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.12654/JCS.2014.30.1.06
  12. Lazzari, M. and Chiantore, O., 1999, Drying and oxidative degradation of linseed oil. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 65, 303-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(99)00020-8
  13. Lee, H.S., Han, K.S. and Chung, Y.J. 2015, Introduction to conservation of mural painting. Jeongjin Publishing, Gwangju, 138.
  14. Mayer, R., 1991, The artist's handbook, Viking, 5th edition, New York.
  15. Nasa, J.L., Zanaboni, M., Uldanck, D., Degano, I., Modugno, F., Kutzke, H., Tveit, E.S., Topalova-Casadiego, B. and Colombini, M.P., 2015, Novel application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the characterization of drying oils in art: Elucidation on the composition of original paint materials used by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Analytica Chimica Acta, 896, 177-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.09.023
  16. Park, J.Y., 2013, A scientific analysis of glue in Chosun murals of temples by using FT-IR. Master's thesis, Konkuk University, Seoul, 44-47. (in Korean with English abstract)
  17. Sobeih, K.L., Baron, M. and Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J., 2008, Recent trends and developments in pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1186, 51-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.10.017
  18. Vandenabeele, P., Edwards, H.G.M. and Moens, L., 2007, A decade of Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology. Chemical Reviews, 107, 675-686. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr068036i
  19. Wang, N., He, L., Zhao, X. and Simon, S., 2015, Comparative analysis of eastern and western drying-oil binding media used in polychromic artworks by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry under the influence of pigments. Microchemical Journal, 123, 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2015.06.007
  20. Wikimedia Foundation, 2017, Drying oil. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drying_oil (July 21, 2017)