Cancer Immunotherapy: Cancer Vaccines

  • Lee, Na Kyung (Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Kim, Hong Sung (Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Korea Nazarene University)
  • Received : 2017.09.05
  • Accepted : 2017.09.17
  • Published : 2017.09.30


It has well reported that host immune system is closely related to cancer growth and eradication. Among cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine is focused on this review. Cancer vaccine is using host immune system against various tumor antigens to treat cancer. We discuss the classification and characteristics of the preventive vaccine, therapeutic vaccine and combination cancer immunotherapy.


Supported by : 나사렛대학교


  1. Atanackovic D, Altorki NK, Cao Y, Ritter E, Ferrara CA, Ritter G, Hoffman EW, Okemeyer C, Old LJ, Gnjatic S. Booster vaccination of cancer patients with mage-a3 protein reveals longterm immunological memory or tolerance depending on priming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008. 105: 1650-1655.
  2. Atkins MB, Lotze MT, Dutcher JP, Fisher RI, Weiss G, Margolin K, Abrams J, Sznol M, Parkinson D, Hawkins M, Paradise C, Kunkel L, Rosenberg SA. High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: Analysis of 270 patients treated between 1985 and 1993. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1999. 17: 2105-2116.
  3. Bartlett DL, Liu Z, Sathaiah M, Ravindranathan R, Guo Z, He Y, Guo ZS. Oncolytic viruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Molecular Cancer. 2013. 12: 103.
  4. Bozza C, Cinausero M, Iacono D, Puglisi F. Hepatitis b and cancer: A practical guide for the oncologist. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2016. 98: 137-146.
  5. Cai W, Kerner ZJ, Hong H, Sun J. Targeted cancer therapy with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Biochem Insights. 2008: 15-21.
  6. Chatenoud L. Natural and induced T CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2011. 677: 3-13.
  7. Copier J, Dalgleish A. Whole-cell vaccines: A failure or a success waiting to happen? Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics. 2010. 12: 14-20.
  8. De Gruijl TD, van den Eertwegh AJ, Pinedo HM, Scheper RJ. Whole-cell cancer vaccination: From autologous to allogeneic tumor- and dendritic cell-based vaccines. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy. 2008. 57: 1569-1577.
  9. DiPaola RS, Chen YH, Bubley GJ, Stein MN, Hahn NM, Carducci MA, Lattime EC, Gulley JL, Arlen PM, Butterfield LH, Wilding G. A national multicenter phase 2 study of prostatespecific antigen (PSA) pox virus vaccine with sequential androgen ablation therapy in patients with psa progression: Ecog 9802. European Urology. 2015. 68: 365-371.
  10. Dotan E, Aggarwal C, Smith MR. Impact of rituximab (rituxan) on the treatment of B-cell non-hodgkin's lymphoma. Physical Therapy. 2010. 35: 148-157.
  11. Eager R, Nemunaitis J. GM-CSF gene-transduced tumor vaccines. Molecular Therapy. 2005. 12: 18-27.
  12. Ferrantini M, Capone I, Belardelli F. Interferon-alpha and cancer: mechanisms of action and new perspectives of clinical use. Biochimie. 2007. 89: 884-893.
  13. Gabrilovich DI, Nagaraj S. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2009. 9: 162-174.
  14. Gnjatic S, Nagata Y, Jager E, Stockert E, Shankara S, Roberts BL, Mazzara GP, Lee SY, Dunbar PR, Dupont B, Cerundolo V, Ritter G, Chen YT, Knuth A, Old LJ. Strategy for monitoring T cell responses to ny-eso-1 in patients with any HLA class i allele. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000. 97: 10917-10922.
  15. Grosso JF, Jure-Kunkel MN. CTLA-4 blockade in tumor models: An overview of preclinical and translational research. Cancer Immunology. 2013. 13: 5.
  16. Guo C, Manjili MH, Subjeck JR, Sarkar D, Fisher PB, Wang XY. Therapeutic cancer vaccines: past, present, and future. Advances in Cancer Research. 2013. 119: 421-475.
  17. Hamanishi J, Mandai M, Matsumura N, Abiko K, Baba T, Konishi I. PD-1/PD-1L blockade in cancer treatment: Perspectives and issues. International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2016. 21:462-473.
  18. Hong IS. Stimulatory versus suppressive effects of GM-CSF on tumor progression in multiple cancer types. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 2016. 48: e242.
  19. June CH. Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007. 117: 1204-1212.
  20. Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, Xu Y, Frohlich MW, Schellhammer PF, Investigators IS. Sipuleucel-t immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010. 363: 411-422.
  21. Keenan BP, Jaffee EM. Whole cell vaccines--past progress and future strategies. Seminars in Oncology. 2012. 39: 276-286.
  22. Kelly E, Russell SJ. History of oncolytic viruses: genesis to genetic engineering. Molecular Therapy. 2007. 15: 651-659.
  23. Kilinc MO, Gu T, Harden JL, Virtuoso LP, Egilmez NK. Central role of tumor-associated CD8+ T effector/memory cells in restoring systemic antitumor immunity. The Journal of Immunology. 2009. 182: 4217-4225.
  24. Kim HS, Kim-Schulze S, Kim DW, Kaufman HL. Host lymphodepletion enhances the therapeutic activity of an oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing 4-1BB ligand. Cancer Research. 2009. 69: 8516-8525.
  25. Le DT, Wang-Gillam A, Picozzi V, Greten TF, Crocenzi T, Springett G, Morse M, Zeh H, Cohen D, Fine RL, Onners B, Uram JN, Laheru DA, Lutz ER, Solt S, Murphy AL, Skoble J, Lemmens E, Grous J, Dubensky T Jr., Brockstedt DG, Jaffee EM. Safety and survival with gvax pancreas prime and listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (crs-207) boost vaccines for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2015. 33: 1325-1333.
  26. Leach DR, Krummel MF, Allison JP. Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade. Science. 1996. 271: 1734-1736.
  27. Lee NK, Kim HS. Tumor induces the expansion fo Foxp3+$CD25^{high}$ and CDllb+Gr-1+ cell population in the early pahse of tumor progression. Biomedical Science Letters. 2015. 21:172-180.
  28. Lipson EJ, Sharfman WH, Chen S, McMiller TL, Pritchard TS, Salas JT, Sartorius-Mergenthaler S, Freed I, Ravi S, Wang H, Luber B, Sproul JD, Taube JM, Pardoll DM, Topalian SL. Safety and immunologic correlates of melanoma gvax, a gmcsf secreting allogeneic melanoma cell vaccine administered in the adjuvant setting. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2015. 13: 214.
  29. Melero I, Gaudernack G, Gerritsen W, Huber C, Parmiani G, Scholl S, Thatcher N, Wagstaff J, Zielinski C, Faulkner I, Mellstedt H. Therapeutic vaccines for cancer: An overview of clinical trials. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. 2014. 11: 509-524.
  30. Nahta R, Esteva FJ. Herceptin: Mechanisms of action and resistance. Cancer Letters. 2006. 232: 123-138.
  31. Neller MA, Lopez JA, Schmidt CW. Antigens for cancer immunotherapy. Seminars in Immunology. 2008. 20: 286-295.
  32. Nemunaitis J. Vaccines in cancer: Gvax, a GM-CSF gene vaccine. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2005. 4: 259-274.
  33. Palucka K, Banchereau J, Mellman I. Designing vaccines based on biology of human dendritic cell subsets. Immunity. 2010. 33: 464-478.
  34. Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Sledge GW, Kaufman PA, Hudis CA, Martino S, Gralow JR, Dakhil SR, Ingle JN, Winer EP, Gelmon KA, Gersh BJ, Jaffe AS, Rodeheffer RJ. Cardiac safety analysis of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without trastuzumab in the north central cancer treatment group n9831 adjuvant breast cancer trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2008. 26: 1231-1238.
  35. Small EJ, Fratesi P, Reese DM, Strang G, Laus R, Peshwa MV, Valone FH. Immunotherapy of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with antigen-loaded dendritic cells. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2000. 18: 3894-3903.
  36. Speiser DE, Lienard D, Rufer N, Rubio-Godoy V, Rimoldi D, Lejeune F, Krieg AM, Cerottini JC, Romero P. Rapid and strong human cd8+ t cell responses to vaccination with peptide, ifa, and cpg oligodeoxynucleotide 7909. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2005. 115: 739-746.
  37. Srivatsan S, Patel JM, Bozeman EN, Imasuen IE, He S, Daniels D, Selvaraj P. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines: The promise and limitations in clinical trials. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2014. 10: 52-63.
  38. Valmori D, Souleimanian NE, Tosello V, Bhardwaj N, Adams S, O'Neill D, Pavlick A, Escalon JB, Cruz CM, Angiulli A, Angiulli F, Mears G, Vogel SM, Pan L, Jungbluth AA, Hoffmann EW, Venhaus R, Ritter G, Old LJ, Ayyoub M. Vaccination with ny-eso-1 protein and cpg in montanide induces integrated antibody/Th1 responses and CD8 T cells through cross-priming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007. 104: 8947-8952.
  39. Wolchok JD, Hoos A, O'Day S, Weber JS, Hamid O, Lebbe C, Maio M, Binder M, Bohnsack O, Nichol G, Humphrey R, Hodi FS. Guidelines for the evaluation of immune therapy activity in solid tumors: Immune-related response criteria. Clinical Cancer Research. 2009. 15: 7412-7420.
  40. Zhang L, Conejo-Garcia JR, Katsaros D, Gimotty PA, Massobrio M, Regnani G, Makrigiannakis A, Gray H, Schlienger K, Liebman MN, Rubin SC, Coukos G. Intratumoral T cells, recurrence, and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2003. 348: 203-213.
  41. Zheng L, Edil BH, Soares KC, El-Shami K, Uram JN, Judkins C, Zhang Z, Onners B, Laheru D, Pardoll D, Jaffee EM, Schulick RD. A safety and feasibility study of an allogeneic colon cancer cell vaccine administered with a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-producing bystander cell line in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2014. 21: 3931-3937.
  42. Zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses in the causation of human cancers - a brief historical account. Virology. 2009. 384: 260-265.