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Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

  • Hong, Sun Hee ;
  • Kim, Mijeong ;
  • Woo, Minji ;
  • Song, Yeong Ok
  • Received : 2017.06.09
  • Accepted : 2017.07.31
  • Published : 2017.10.02

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-${\kappa}B$) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. CONCLUSIONS: GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and NF-${\kappa}B$ downregulation. These effects were significantly higher than those of RCD.

Keywords

Antioxidants;lipid metabolism;SREBP2 Protein;ginseng;inflammation

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)