DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Amygdalin Contents in Peaches at Different Fruit Development Stages

Lee, Suk-Hee;Oh, Angela;Shin, Seo-Hee;Kim, Ha-Na;Kang, Woo-Won;Chung, Shin-Kyo

  • Received : 2017.03.13
  • Accepted : 2017.07.12
  • Published : 2017.09.30

Abstract

Amygdalin contents of the seeds, endocarps, and mesocarps from three peach cultivars (i.e., Stone Peach, Hikawa Hakuho, and Bakhyang) were measured at three stages of fruit development (stone-hardening, fruit enlargement, and ripening). The peach samples were dried and defatted with a Soxhlet apparatus, reflux extracted with methanol, and analyzed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. During all fruit development stages, the amygdalin contents in the seeds were higher than those in the endocarps and mesocarps. The amygdalin contents of the Stone Peach were comparatively higher than the Hikawa Hakuho and Bakhyang (P<0.05). Further, the amygdalin contents during ripening were very low or not detected. Overall, the amygdalin contents of the three peach cultivar samples (seed, endocarp, and mesocarp) increased until the fruit enlargement stage and either remained constant or decreased during ripening.

Keywords

amygdalin;fruit development stages;peaches;HPLC;seeds

References

  1. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. 2016. The status of fruits processing in 2015. Sejong, Korea.
  2. Yi SH, Ann YG, Choi JS, Lee JS. 1996. Development of peach fermented wine. Korean J Food Nutr 9: 409-412.
  3. Jo JW, Kim JK, Kim ID, Kim SD. 2000. Characteristics of peach wine prepared by using different cultivars. Korean J Postharvest Sci Technol 7: 84-88.
  4. Chung JH, Mok C, Lim S, Park YS. 2003. Changes of physicochemical properties during fermentation of peach wine and quality improvement by ulfilteration. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 506-512. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.4.506
  5. Lee JB, Chung HS. 2008. Studies on the components of unripe peaches. Korean J Food Preserv 15: 79-83.
  6. McCready RM, McComb EA. 1954. Pectic constituents in ripe and unripe fruit. J Food Res 19: 530-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1954.tb17485.x
  7. Kim DM, Kim KH, Choi IJ, Yook HS. 2012. Composition and physicochemical properties of unripe Korean peaches according to cultivars. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 221-226. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.2.221
  8. Kim HJ. 2007. Isolation and characterization of active whitening compound from Prunus persica. MS Thesis. Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
  9. Kim DM, Kim KH, Kim YS, Koh JH, Lee KH, Yook HS. 2012. A study on the development of cosmetic materials using unripe peaches seed extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 110-115. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.110
  10. Yoon IH, Seo BI, Kim SH. 1996. The effect of Persicae Semen on the atherosclerosis in rabbit. J Herbol 11: 79-98.
  11. Ryu HM, Jeon DK, Kim SA, Chung HJ. 2013. Antioxidant and quality characteristics of mungbean starch gel added with peach seed powder. Korean J Food Preserv 20: 372-378. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2013.20.3.372
  12. Nahrstedt A. 1972. Zur cyanogenese von Prunus avium. Phytochemistry 11: 3121-3126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86360-8
  13. Jones MB, Fleming ZW, Bailey LF. 1957. Cyanide as a growth inhibiting substance in extracts of peach leaves, bark, and flower buds. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 69: 152-157.
  14. Bolarinwa IF, Orfila C, Morgan MRA. 2014. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK. Food Chem 152: 133-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.002
  15. Concon JM. 1988. Food toxicology: principles and concepts. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA. p 74.
  16. Kwon H, Jo Y. 2007. A study on the decomposition of amygdalin using an in vitro assay. J Toxicol Pub Health 23: 47-53.
  17. Viorica-Mirela G, Socaciu C, Jianu I, Florica R, Florinela F. 2006. Identification and quantitative evaluation of amygdalin from apricot, plum and peach oils and kernels. Buletin USAMVCN 62: 246-253.
  18. Haque MR, Bradbury JH. 2002. Total cyanide determination of plants and foods using the picrate and acid hydrolysis methods. Food Chem 77: 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00313-2
  19. Hwang EY, Lee JH, Lee YM, Hong SP. 2002. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin and optimum conditions for inhibition of racemization of amygdalin. Chem Pharm Bull 50: 1373-1375. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.50.1373
  20. Kim EJ, Lee HJ, Jang JW, Kim IY, Kim DH, Kim HA, Lee SM, Jang HW, Kim SY, Jang YM, Im DK, Lee SH. 2010. Analytical determination of cyanide in maesil (Prunus mume) extracts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 42: 130-135.
  21. Selmar D, Lieberei R, Biehl B. 1988. Mobilization and utilization of cyanogenic glycosides: the linustatin pathway. Plant Physiol 86: 711-716. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.86.3.711
  22. Swain E, Poulton JE. 1994. Utilization of amygdalin during seedling development of Prunus serotina. Plant Physiol 106: 437-445. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.2.437
  23. Zhao Y. 2012. Amygdalin content in four stone fruit species at different developmental stages. ScienceAsia 38: 218-222. https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2012.38.218