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Emergy Evaluation of Korean Agriculture

한국 농업의 에머지 평가

  • Kang, Daeseok (Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University)
  • 강대석 (부경대학교 생태공학과)
  • Received : 2017.08.15
  • Accepted : 2017.08.28
  • Published : 2017.09.30

Abstract

Emergy methodology was used to analyze the biophysical basis of Korean agriculture and assess its sustainablility. Total yearly emergy input into Korean agriculture was $7.72{\times}10^{22}sej/yr$ in 2013. Purchased inputs were the dominant emergy source, accounting for 90.1% ($6.95{\times}10^{22}sej/yr$) of the annual input. This clearly indicates that the Korean agriculture is a modern, industrialized system that depends mostly on market goods and services derived from nonrenewable resources. The monetary equivalent of the total emergy input was 18.9 trillion \/yr, 1.5 times greater than the total production cost from farm expense surveys. Emergy return on investment of Korean agriculture was low, with an emergy yield ratio of 1.11. Korean agriculture appears to exert pressure on the environment as revealed by the high environmental loading ratio of 9.30. With very low emergy input from renewable sources (9.7%) and high environmental pressure, Korean agriculture is not sustainable, with an emergy sustainability index of 0.12. This study suggests that higher use efficiency of and lower dependence on nonrenewable purchased inputs need to be prioritized in an effort to enhance the sustainability of Korean agriculture.

Keywords

Korean agriculture;Emergy;Biophysical base;Sustainability

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 부경대학교

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