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Air Temperature Modification of an Urban Neighborhood Park in Summer - Hyowon Park, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do-

여름철 도시근린공원의 기온저감 효과 - 경기도 수원시 효원공원 -

  • Park, Sookuk (Research Institute for Subtropical Agriculture and Animal Biotechnology, SARI, Horticultural Science, College of Applied Life Science, Jeju National University) ;
  • Jo, Sangman (Research Institute for Subtropical Agriculture and Animal Biotechnology, SARI, Horticultural Science, College of Applied Life Science, Jeju National University) ;
  • Hyun, Cheolji (Research Institute for Subtropical Agriculture and Animal Biotechnology, SARI, Horticultural Science, College of Applied Life Science, Jeju National University) ;
  • Kong, Hak-Yang (Natural Environment Research Division, Environmental Resources Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Kim, Seunghyun (Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Shin, Youngkyu (Natural Environment Research Division, Environmental Resources Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research)
  • 박수국 (제주대학교 생명자원과학대학 생물산업학부 원예환경전공.아열대농업생명과학연구소.친환경농업연구소) ;
  • 조상만 (제주대학교 생명자원과학대학 생물산업학부 원예환경전공.아열대농업생명과학연구소.친환경농업연구소) ;
  • 현철지 (제주대학교 생명자원과학대학 생물산업학부 원예환경전공.아열대농업생명과학연구소.친환경농업연구소) ;
  • 공학양 (국립환경과학원 환경자원연구부 자연환경연구과) ;
  • 김승현 (한국건설기술연구원) ;
  • 신영규 (국립환경과학원 환경자원연구부 자연환경연구과)
  • Received : 2017.06.23
  • Accepted : 2017.09.15
  • Published : 2017.09.30

Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of air temperature reduction on an urban neighborhood park, air temperature data from five inside locations (forest, pine tree, lawn, brick and pergola) depending on surface types and three outside locations (Suwon, Maetan and Kwonsun) depending on urban forms were collected during the summer 2016 and compared. The forest location had the lowest mean air temperature amongst all locations sampled, though the mean difference between this and the other four locations in the park was relatively small ($0.2-0.5^{\circ}C$). In the daytime, the greatest mean difference between the forest location and the two locations exposed to direct beam solar radiation (brick and lawn) was $0.5-0.8^{\circ}C$ (Max. $1.6-2.1^{\circ}C$). In the nighttime, the mean difference between the forest location and the other four locations in the park was small, though differences between the forest location and locations with grass cover (pine tree and lawn) reached a maximum of $0.9-1.7^{\circ}C$. Comparing air temperature between sunny and shaded locations, the shaded locations showed a maximum of $1.5^{\circ}C$ lower temperature in the daytime and $0.7^{\circ}C$ higher in the nighttime. Comparing the air temperature of the forest location with those of the residential (Kwonsun) and apartment (Maetan) locations, the mean air temperature difference was $0.8-1.0^{\circ}C$, higher than those measured between the forest location and the other park locations. The temperatures measured in the forest location were mean $0.9-1.3^{\circ}C$ (Max. $2.0-3.9^{\circ}C$) lower in the daytime than for the residential and apartment locations and mean $0.4-1.0^{\circ}C$ (Max. $1.3-3.1^{\circ}C$) lower in the nighttime. During the hottest period of each month, the difference was greater than the mean monthly differences, with temperatures in the residential and apartment locations mean $1.0-1.6^{\circ}C$ higher than those measured in the forest location. The effect of air temperature reduction on sampling locations within the park and a relatively high thermal environment on the urban sampling locations was clearly evident in the daytime, and the shading effect of trees in the forest location must be most effective. In the nighttime, areas with a high sky view factor and surface types with high evapotranspiration potential (e.g. grass) showed the maximum air temperature reduction. In the urban areas outside the park, the low-rise building area, with a high sky view factor, showed high air temperature due to the effect of solar (shortwave) radiation during the daytime, while in the nighttime the area with high-rise buildings, and hence a low sky view factor, showed high air temperature due to the effect of terrestrial (longwave) radiation emitted by surrounding high-rise building surfaces. The effect of air temperature reduction on the park with a high thermal environment in the city was clearly evident in the daytime, and the shading effect of trees in the forest location must be most effective. In the nighttime, areas with high sky view factor and surface types (e.g., grass) with evapotranspiration effect showed maximum air temperature reduction. In the urban areas outside the park, the high sky view factor area (low-rise building area) showed high air temperature due to the effect of solar (shortwave) radiation during the daytime, but in the nighttime the low sky view factor area (high-rise building area) showed high air temperature due to the effect of terrestrial (longwave) radiation emitted surrounding high-rise building surfaces.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 그린인프라를 이용한 도시재해 대응방안 마련 연구

Supported by : 국립환경과학원

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