Characteristics of Atmosphere-rice Paddy Exchange of Gaseous and Particulate Reactive Nitrogen in Terms of Nitrogen Input to a Single-cropping Rice Paddy Area in Central Japan

  • Received : 2017.04.18
  • Accepted : 2017.06.02
  • Published : 2017.09.30


Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient. Thus, evaluating its flows and stocks in rice paddy ecosystems provides important insights into the sustainability and environmental loads of rice production. Among the N sources of paddy fields, atmospheric deposition and irrigation inputs remain poorly understood. In particular, insufficient information is available for atmosphere-rice paddy exchange of gaseous and particulate reactive N (Nr, all N species other than molecular N) which represents the net input or output through dry deposition and emission. In this study, we assessed the N inputs via atmospheric deposition and irrigation to a Japanese rice paddy area by weekly monitoring for 2 years with special emphasis on gas and particle exchange. The rice paddy during the cropping season acted as a net emitter of ammonia ($NH_3$) to the atmosphere regardless of the N fertilizer applications, which reduced the effects of dry deposition to the N input. Dry N deposition was quantitatively similar to wet N deposition, when subtracting the rice paddy $NH_3$ emissions from N exchange. The annual N inputs to the rice paddy were 3.2 to $3.6\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for exchange, 8.1 to $9.8\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for wet deposition, and 11.1 to $14.5\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for irrigation. The total N input, 22.8 to $27.5\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, corresponded to 38% to 55% of the N fertilizer application rate and 53% to 67% of the brown rice N uptake. Monitoring of atmospheric deposition and irrigation as N sources for rice paddies will therefore be necessary for adequate N management.


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