Convergence Effects of Positive Psychological Capital and Social Support in Adolescents on Depression

청소년의 긍정심리자본과 사회적 지지가 우울에 미치는 융복합적 효과

  • Jeong, Eun (Department of Nursing, Gwangyang Health Sciences University) ;
  • Jung, Mi-Ra (Department of Nursing, Hanyeong College University)
  • 정은 (광양보건대학 간호학과) ;
  • 정미라 (한영대학 간호학과)
  • Received : 2017.07.28
  • Accepted : 2017.09.20
  • Published : 2017.09.28


The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among positive psychological capital and social support on depression and identify the factors that influence on depression in the adolescents. The data were collected from 140 adolescents in the two middle school located J city using self-reported questionnaires and May 9 2017 to May 19 2017. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, T-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS 20.0 program. Depression was found to be in a significant negative correlation with positive psychological capital and social support. The result of the stepwise multiple regression indicates the positive psychological capital, social support and economic status predict 22.4% (F=14.38, p<.001) of depression. Therefore, it is necessary to develop convergence positive psychological capital and social support strategy program for decrease and prevents depression in adolescents.


Depression;Positive Psychological Capital;Social Support;Adolescents;Convergence


  1. M. Y. Kim, I. S. Kwon, S. Y. Kim, E. K. Kim, E. Y. Kim et al, "Pediatric health nursing", Paju: Soomoonsa. 2015.
  2. E. M. Lim, S. S. Chung, "The changes of youths' stress and depression and the long-term effects of stress on the depression." Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 99-121, 2009.
  3. Statistics Korea, "Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey", (December 27, 2016)
  4. A. T. Beck, "Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders", New York, NY: International Universities Press. 1976.
  5. J. S. Lee, H. S. Lee, "Relationships of individual and family variables with adolescents' depression." Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 77-89, 2012.
  6. J. Y. Kim, D. E. Lee, Y. K. Chung, "The moderating effects of volunteer participation between stressors and depression in youths." Studies on Korean Youth, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 99-126, 2013.
  7. F. Luthans, "Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths." The Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 57-75, 2002.
  8. A. R. Choi, S. Lee, "The effects of temperament, social support and emotion regulation on the positive psychological capital of middle school students." Korean Journal of Child Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 57-77, 2016.
  9. G. S. Lee, "A study on positive psychological capital of adolescent." Master's thesis, Dongguk National University, 2015.
  10. M. H. Han, A. J. Yoo, "The relation of stress and perceived social support to problem behavior." Korean Journal of Child Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 173-188, 1996.
  11. S. Y. Lee, J. S. Lee, "The convergent effect of stress, social support, and self-esteem on depression in female students." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 335-344, 2016.
  12. G. Andrews, C. Tennant, D. M. Hewson, G. E. Vaillant, "Life event stress, social support, coping style, and risk of psychological impairment." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 166, No. 5, pp. 307-316, 1978.
  13. M. K. Choi, "Depression, stress coping behavior, social support, and self-esteem of middle school students in Gangwondo." The Journal of Korean Society for School Health Education, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 43-56, 2012.
  14. S. K. Choi, K. O. Park, "Associations between interpersonal dispositions, social support, and depression among high school students." The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 120-126, 2015.
  15. A. R. Choi, "The effect of temperament and social support on school adjustment of adolescents: Mediating effects of positive psychological capital." Ph.D. thesis, Chonnam National University, 2017.
  16. G. S. Jeon, S. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, "Gender differences in correlates of depression and suicidal ideation among korean adolescents." The Korean Journal of Health Service Management, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 295-308, 2012.
  17. S. S. So, M. K. Song, C. S. Kim, "The effects of perceived parenting behavior and school adjustment on the depression of early adolescent." Korean Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 1-23, 2010.
  18. B. J. Jeon, "Effects of stressors on the depression of users of individual rehabilitation system: Focusing on the moderating effects of hope." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 393-402, 2015.
  19. M. Y. Hyun, J. E. Lee, S. N. Park, "A study on the adolescents' hope and mental health." Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 116-123, 2003.
  20. S. N. Seo, S. G. Lee, S. H. Lim, "The effect of positive parenting style, self-efficacy, stress, and depression on school adjustment of adolescents." The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 327-333, 2012.
  21. M. J. Jung, H. J. Lee, "The mediating effects of resilience in the relationship of perfectionism and depression of adolescents." The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 87-104, 2015.
  22. H. J. Lee, "Study on the moderating effects of cognitive strategies, optimism, and social support in a relationship between stress and depression among teenagers." Ph.D. thesis, Gachon National University, 2016.
  23. F. Luthans, B. J. Avolio, J. B. Avey, S. M. Norman, "Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction." Personnel Psychology, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 541-572, 2007.
  24. L. Radloff, "The CES-D scale: A new self-report depression scale for research in the general population." Applied Psychological Measurement, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 385-401, 1977.
  25. K. K. Chon, M. K. Lee, "Preliminary development of korean version of CES-D." Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-76, 1992.
  26. E. Y. Jung, "The effect of psychological capital on career barriers and career maturity of high school girls." Master's thesis, Myongji National University, 2013.
  27. E. F. Dubow, D. G. Ulman, "Assessing social support in elementary school children: The survey of children's social support." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 52-64, 1989.
  28. H. S. Lee, J. W. Oak, "Effects of impulsive behavior, self esteem, and depression on school adjustment of adolescents." The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 438-446, 2012.
  29. H. I. Kwon, "An empirical review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents." Korean Association of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 24-41, 2012.
  30. Y. Yamaguchi, "Collaborative interview for junior high school students with depression from medical side and educational side: From the standpoint of clinical psychologists in medical field." Kyushu University Psychological Research, Vol. 11, pp. 71-77, 2010.
  31. J. Y. Lee, "Study on the positive psychological capital of adolescent." Master's thesis, Jeju National University, 2017.
  32. M. E. P. Seligman, "Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life", New York: Vintage Books, 1998.
  33. F. Luthans, C. M. Yousse-Morganf, B. J. Avolio, "Psychological capital and beyond", New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  34. M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, M. W. Bridges, "Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem: A reevaluation of the life orientation test." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 1063-1078, 1994.
  35. M. K. Choi, "Influential factors on mental health of high school students in seoul." Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 155-166, 2005.
  36. M. S. Jeon, H. O. Kim, "The effects of self-efficacy and social support on depression in elementary school children." Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 272-280. 2011.