Process of Social Stigma on Behavioral Addictions -The Attribution Affection Theory applied -

행위중독에 대한 사회적 낙인과정 - 귀인정서이론 적용 -

  • Received : 2017.06.30
  • Accepted : 2017.08.11
  • Published : 2017.08.31


This study was conducted to propose anti-stigma strategies by verifying the social stigma on behavioral addiction under the premise that social stigma is a main obstacle to the treatment of addiction. A research model was constructed by applying the attribution affection theory and the modified attribution affection theory, which are very useful for explaining emotional and behavioral responses to the persons with mental illness. In other words, when attributing the causes of behavioral addiction to the personally controllable things such as personality, will and lifestyle, social distance can be increased by the mediate of anger. However, when attributing the causes of behavioral addiction to biological factors that can not be controlled by an individual, there can exist two pathway, one is the arising of helping behaviors by the mediate of sympathy (the attribution affection theory), and the other is the aggravation in the social distance due to rising fear (the modified attribution affection theory). In order to verify the research model, 383 adult subjects mainly in South Gyeongsang Province were randomly presented with the vignettes of gambling addiction and internet game addiction, and asked about the causes of the problems and their emotional, prejudicial, and behavioral responses to them. As a result, all pathway had statistically significant predictive effect. Therefore, in the case of attributing to personal causes, social distance increased by the mediate of anger. In the case of attributing to biological causes, both pathway had significant predictive effect, but the indirect effect of the pathway predictive of the helping behavior by the mediate of sympathy was greater. Researchers suggested that anti-stigma strategies, which emphasize that behavioral addiction is a mental health problem requiring treatment, are necessary.


  1. 김재훈.서미경, 2011, "정신장애 유형에 따른 편견과 차별: 사례를 활용한 대학생 조사결과", 정신보건과 사회사업, 37: 35-64.
  2. 김정남.서미경, 2004, "정신장애인에 대한 편견과 차별에 관한 연구", 한국심리학회지: 건강, 9(3): 589-607.
  3. 문수백, 2012, 구조방정식모델링의 이해와 적용 AMOS 17.0, 서울 : 학지사
  4. 미래창조과학부․한국정보화진흥원, 2017, 2016년 인터넷 과의존 실태조사 결과.
  5. 박근우.서미경, 2012a, "정신장애인의 사회적 거리감에 대한 수정된 귀인정서모형 적용", 한국사회복지학, 64(4): 209-231.
  6. 박근우.서미경, 2012b, "정신장애인에 대한 대학생의 편견과 차별", 사회과학연구, 28(4): 383-408.
  7. 사행산업통합감독위원회, 2010, 도박문제의 사회․경제적 비용추계연구.
  8. 사행산업통합감독위원회, 2016, 2016년 사행산업이용실태조사.
  9. 서미경, 2015, 정신장애인의 인권: 자유와 평등을 향한 긴 여정, 서울: 집문당.
  10. 서미경.김정남.이민규, 2010, "정신장애의 원인에 대한 생물학적 이해와 친숙함이 사회적 거리감에 미치는 영향", 한국심리학회지: 건강, 15(1): 123-141.
  11. 서미경.이민규, 2013, "한국인의 정신건강이해력 평가와 취약집단분석", 한국사회복지학, 65(2): 313-334.
  12. 서미경.이민규.김정남, 2008, 정신질환자에 대한 차별과 편견 실태조사, 국가인권위원회.
  13. 이민화.서미경.최경숙, 2016, "정신장애인에 대한 친숙함이 차별에 미치는 영향", 한국사회복지학, 68(4): 75-96.
  14. 정선영.손덕순.백형의, 2008, "부랑인 시설 종사자들의 정신장애인에 대한 태도 연구", 정신보건과사회사업, 28: 67-95.
  15. 중독포럼, 2013, 중독에 대한 100가지 오해와 진실.
  16. 한국정보화진흥원, 2009, 인터넷 중독의 사회경제적 비용 분석.
  17. 한국도박문제관리센터, 2015, 도박문제관리백서.
  18. American Psychiatric Association, 2013, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Pub.
  19. Anderson, J. C., and Gerbing, D. W., 1998, "Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach", Psychologcal Bulletin, 103(3): 411-423.
  20. Angermeyer, M. C., Holzinger, A., and Matschinger, H., 2009, "Mental health literacy and attitude towards people with mental illness: A trend analysis based on population surveys in the eastern part of Germany", European Psychiatry, 24(4): 225-232.
  21. Angermeyer, M.C., and Matschinger, H., 2005, "Causal beliefs and attitudes to people with schizophrenia", British Journal of Psychiatry, 186: 331-334.
  22. Carroll, A., Rodgers, B., Davidson, T., and Sims, S., 2013, Stigma and help-seeking for gambling problems, Canberra: Australian National University.
  23. Corrigan, P. W., 2000, "Mental health stigma as social attribution: Implications for research methods and attitude change", Clinical Psychology and Practice, 7(1): 48-67.
  24. Corrigan, P. W., Green, A., Lundin, R., Kubiak, M. A., and Penn, D. L., 2001, "Familiarity with and social distance from people who have serious mental illness", Psychiatric Services, 52(7): 953-958.
  25. Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J., Sells, M., Niessen, N., and Watson, A. C., 2007, "Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?", Community Mental Health Journal, 43(2): 171-181.
  26. Corrigan, P. W., Lurie B. D., Goldman, H. H., Slopen, N., Medasani. K., and Phelan, S., 2005, "How adolescents perceive the stigma of mental illness and alcohol abuse", Psychiatric Service, 56(5): 544-50.
  27. Corrigan, P. W., Markowitz, F. E., Watson, A., Rowan, D., and Kubiak. M. A., 2003, "An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness", Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 44: 162-179.
  28. Corrigan, P. W., River, L. P., Lundin, R. K., Wasowski, K. U., Campion, J., Mathisen, J and Kubiak, M. A., 2000, "Stigmatizing attributions about mental illness", Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1): 91-102.<91::AID-JCOP9>3.0.CO;2-M
  29. Couture, S. M. and Penn, D. L., 2006, "The effects of prospective naturalistic contact on the stigma of mental illness", Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5): 635-645.
  30. Crespo, M., Perez-Santos, E., Munz, M., and Guillen, A.I., 2008, "Descriptive study of stigma associated with severe and persistent mental illness among the general population of Madrid (Spain)", Community Mental Health Journal, 44: 393-403.
  31. Dietrich, S., Matschinger, H., and Angermeyer, M.C., 2006, "The relationship between biogenetic causal explanations and social distance toward people with mental disorders: Results from a population survey in Germany", International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(2): 166-174.
  32. Feldman, D. B., and Crandall, C. S., 2007, "Dimensions of mental illness stigma: What about mental illness causes social rejection?", Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(2): 137-154.
  33. Fernando, S. M., Deane, F. P., and McLeod, H. J., 2010, "Sri Lankan doctors' and medical undergraduates' attitudes towards mental illness", Social psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(7): 733-739.
  34. Gainsbury, S., Hing, N., and Suhonen, N., 2014, "Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: Awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment", Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2): 503-519.
  35. Goffman, E., 1963, Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity, London: Penguin.
  36. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., and Black, W. C., 1998, Multivariate analysis, Englewood: Prentice Hall International.
  37. Hing, N., Nuske, E., Gainsbury, S. M., and Russell, A. M., 2016a, "Perceived stigma and self-stigma of problem gambling: perspectives of people with gambling problems", International Gambling Studies, 16(1): 31-48.
  38. Hing, N., Russell, A. M., Gainsbury, S. M., and Nuske, E., 2016b, "The public stigma of problem gambling: Its nature and relative intensity compared to other health conditions", Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(3): 847-864.
  39. Hing, N., Russell, A., Nuske, E., and Gainsbury, S., 2015, The Stigma of Problem Gambling: Causes, Characteristics and Consequences, Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
  40. Horch, J. D., and Hodgins, D. C., 2008, "Public stigma of disordered gambling: Social distance, dangerousness, and familiarity", Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(5): 505-528.
  41. Horch, J. D., and Hodgins, D. C., 2013, "Stereotypes of problem gambling", Journal of Gambling Issues, 28: 1-19.
  42. Jorm, A. F., and Griffiths, K. M., 2008, "The public's stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: How important are biomedical conceptualizations?", Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(4): 315-321.
  43. Kline, R. B., 2011, Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, New York: Guilford.
  44. Lauber, C., Nordt, C., Falcato, L., and Rossler, W., 2004, "Factors influencing social distance toward people with mental illness", Community Mental Health Journal, 40(3): 265-274.
  45. Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Bresnahan, M., Stueve, A., and Pescosolido, B. A., 1999, "Public conceptions of mental illness: Labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance", American Journal of Public Health, 89(9): 1328-1333.
  46. Mann, C. E., and Himelein, M. J., 2004, "Factors associated with stigmatization of persons with mental illness", Psychiatric Services, 55(2): 185-187.
  47. Martin, J. K., Pescosolido, B. A., and Tuch, S. A., 2000, "Of fear and loathing: The role of 'disturbing behavior,' labels, and causal attributions in shaping public attitudes toward people with mental illness", Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41: 208-223.
  48. Nordt, C., Rössler, W., and Lauber, C., 2006, "Attitudes of mental health professionals toward people with schizophrenia and major depression", Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(4): 709-714.
  49. Overton, S. L., and Medina, S. L., 2008, "The stigma of mental illness", Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2): 143-151.
  50. Phelan, J. E., and Basow, S. A., 2007, "College students' attitudes toward mental illness: An examination of the stigma process", Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(12): 2877-2902.
  51. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Stueve, A., and Pescosolido. B. A., 2000, "Public conceptions of mental illness in 1950 and 1996: what is mental illness and is it to be feared?", Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(2): 188-207.
  52. Read, J., and Harre, N., 2001, "The role of biological and genetic causal beliefs in the stigmatizations of mental patients", Journal of Mental Health, 10(2): 223-235.
  53. Read, J., Haslam, N., Sayce, L., and Davies, E., 2006, "Prejudice and schizophrenia: a review of the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' approach", Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(5): 303-318.
  54. Scheff, T. J., 1966, Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory, Chicago: Aldine.
  55. Walker, I., and Read, J., 2002, "The differential effectiveness of psychosocial and biogenetic causal explanations in reducing negative attitudes toward mental illness", Psychiatry, 65(4): 313-325.
  56. Watson, A.C., 2001, "Mental illness stigma: Idelology, causal attribution", Ph. D dissertation, The University of Chicago.
  57. Weiner, B., 1995, Judgements of Responsibility: A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct, New York: Guilford Press.
  58. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., and Magnusson, J., 1988, "An attribution analysis of reaction to stigma", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5): 738-748.