A study of comparative of evacuation time by platform type according to the propagation speed of smoke in subway platform fire

지하철 승강장 화재시 연기의 전파속도에 따른 승강장 형태별 피난시간 비교·분석 연구

  • Kim, Jin-Su (Graduate School, Incheon National University) ;
  • Rie, Dong-Ho (Fire Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University)
  • 김진수 (인천대학교 일반대학원) ;
  • 이동호 (인천대학교 소방방재연구센터)
  • Received : 2017.05.31
  • Accepted : 2017.07.14
  • Published : 2017.07.31


There are many constraints, both economically and ethically that experimenting human evacuation behavior in situations such as fire. Therefore, the evacuation behavior is simulated based on the existing studies. In recent years, the foundation has been established as computer performance advances, models closer to reality can be studied. In this study, the evacuation time in the subway platform was analyzed from modeling human behavior and smoke propagation in a fire. The evacuation efficiency was also examined by dividing the shape of the subway station platform by the stair position and comparing the evacuation times for each platform. As a result, it was found that the side platform was longer than the island platform by 36.82% more time to evacuation. The shape of the stairs is most advantageous in terms of evacuation form side type platform was 210 seconds and island type platform was 186 seconds, when a fire occurs in the center of the platform. And most favorable in location of evacuation stairs were located at 2/5 point and 4/5 from depending on the step location.


Supported by : 국민안전처


  1. 日本建築学会. "建築物の火災安全設計指針." (2002), pp. 145-147.
  2. Almeida, J.E., Rosseti, R.J., Coelho, A.L. (2013), "Crowd simulation modeling applied to emergency and evacuation simulations using multi-agent systems", arXiv preprint arXiv:1303.4692.
  3. Ando, K., Ota, H., Oki, T. (1988), "Forecasting the flow of people", Railway Research Review, Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 8-14.
  4. Chiam, B.H., Spearpoint, M., Fleischmann, C. (2005), "Numerical simulation of a metro train fire. Department of Civil Engineering", University of Canterbury.
  5. Fruin, J.J. (1971), Pedestrian planning and design (No. 206 pp).
  6. Hankin, B.D., Wright, R.A. (1958), Passenger flow in subways. OR, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 81-88.
  7. Helbing, D., Molnar, P. (1995), Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical review E, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 4282.
  8. Hinkley, P.L. (1989), "The effect of smoke venting on the operation of sprinklers subsequent to the first", Fire safety journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 221-240.
  9. Hong, W.H. (2004), The progress and controlling situation of Daegu Subway fire disaster. Fire Safety Science, 6, s-5.
  10. Jang, J.S., Rie, D.H. (2012), "A Study for dispersion evacuation by behavioral characteristics based on human cognitive abilities", Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 159-166.
  11. Jin, T., Yamada, T. (1989), "Experimental study of human behavior in smoke filled corridors", Fire Safety Science, Vol. 2, pp. 511-519.
  12. Kady, R.A. (2012), "The development of a movement-density relationship for people going on four in evacuation", Safety science, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 253-258.
  13. Kawagoe, K., Saito, H. (1967), "Measures to deal with smoke problems caused by fire", J. of Japan Society for Safety Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 7, pp. 108-114.
  14. Kim, J.S., Rie, D.H. (2016), "A comparative study on evacuation time according to guidance lighting for walkway when visibility level is down", Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 17-22.
  15. Kim, M., Han, Y., Yoon, M.O. (1988), "Convective smoke spread in a corridor", Fire Safety Science, Vol. 3, pp. 439-450.
  16. Kingman, F.E.T., Coleman, E.H., Rasbash, D.J. (1953), "The products of combustion in burning buildings", Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 463-468.
  17. Kong, D., Gray, D., Tao, H. (2006, August), "A viewpoint invariant approach for crowd counting", In Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006. 18th International Conference on. IEEE, Vol. 3, pp. 1187-1190.
  18. Korea Railroad Research Institute. (2014), "Quantitative risk assessment manual draft", South Korea.
  19. Lei, W., Li, A., Gao, R., Hao, X., Deng, B. (2012), "Simulation of pedestrian crowds' evacuation in a huge transit terminal subway station", Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 391, No. 22, pp. 5355-5365.
  20. Ministry of Land. (2006), "Detailed criteria for railway facility safety", Korea.
  21. Ministry of Land. (2013), "Guidelines for the design of urban railway stations and transit and convenience facilities", Korea.
  22. Ministry of Science and Technology, (1998), "Study of fire safety diagnosis and evaluation in public buildings", Korea.
  23. Nelson, H.E., Mowrer, F.W. (2002), Emergency Movement, The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, ed. DiNenno P., Walton DW National Fire Protection Association.
  24. Older, S.J. (1968), Movement of pedestrians on footways in shopping streets. Traffic engineering & control.
  25. Park, B.J., Lee, K.H. (2012), "A study on evacuation performance for various subway station categories during acts of terror or fires", Journal of the architectural institute of Korea planning & design, 28.
  26. Park, B.J., Park, I.G., Yoo, Y.H. (2015), "Evacuation safety analysis depending on the type of subway platform and ticket barrier", Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 237-242.
  27. Pauls, J. (1995), "Movement of people", SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 2, 3.
  28. Rahmalan, H., Nixon, M.S., Carter, J.N. (2006), On crowd density estimation for surveillance.
  29. Rasbash, D.J., Phillips, R.P. (1978), "Quantification of smoke produced at fires. Test methods for smoke and methods of expressing smoke evolution", Fire and Materials, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 102-109.
  30. Roy, J.R. (1992), "Queuing in spatially dispersed public facilities", CSIRO. Division of Building, Construction and Engineering.
  31. Sato, S. (1996), "Numerical simulation of 1993 southwest Hokkaido earthquake tsunami around Okushiri Island", Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, Vol. 122, No. 5, pp. 209-215.
  32. Seo, D.G., Hwong, E.K., Kwon, Y.J. (2010), "An investigation study on the walking speed of crowd egress safety of PBD", Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 99-106.
  33. Seoul Metropolitan Government, seoul statistics 2016.
  34. Togawa, K. (1955), "Study on fire escapes basing on the observation of multitude currents", Building Research Institute, Ministry of Construction.
  35. Yoo, J.O., Kim, J.S., Rie, D.H., Shin, H.J. (2015), "The study on interval calculation of cross passage in undersea tunnel by quantitative risk assesment method", Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 249-256.
  36. Yoo, J.O., Nam, C.H., Jo, H.J., Kim, J.W. (2010), "A study on quantitative risk assessment for railway Tunnel fire", Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 307-319.
  37. Yoo, J.O., Yoon, S.W., Rie, D.H. (2006), "A study of smoke exhaust rate for the transverse ventilation with oversized exhaust ports in road tunnel", Journal of the Korean Society of Safety, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 7-12.
  38. Youn, H.J., Hwang, E. (2013), "A study of on the occupant movement speed during emergency evacuations for the evacuation safety assessment of domestic buildings", Journal of The Korean Society of Disaster Information, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 332-338.
  39. Yuhaski, S.J., Smith, J.M. (1989), "Modeling circulation systems in buildings using state dependent queueing models", Queueing Systems, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 319-338.