- Volume 32 Issue 3
This study was conducted to test the impacts of distractions caused by smartphones on pedestrians whilst walking alongside or across vehicular traffic in a high-density urban zone in South Korea. Through this study, we propose objective evidence for a link between the risk of traffic accidents and distractions from smartphones for pedestrians because of less likely notice activities surrounding road along their walking. This means that smartphones usage may cause inattentional blindness even during a simple activity that should require few cognitive resources. We conducted an experiment comparing pedestrian behavioral patterns of walking with smartphone distractions (such as listening to music with earphones or sending text messages) and normal walking without any distractions. In the experiment, participants walked along a pedestrian path prescribed by researchers and were observed at 8 points which were as follows: two observation points through which participants were instructed to listen to music whilst walking, two points where participants were instructed to send text messages, and four points through which participants were instructed not to use a smartphone at all. According to pedestrian behavior analysis, there is a trend for attention to be distributed amongst whatever other activities pedestrians are doing whilst walking. Therefore, this study proposes that pedestrians walking with such distractions are at a higher risk of traffic accidents compared to those who walk without such distractions. Thus, we advise for the South Korean government to consider ways to traffic policy that will enhance traffic safety for pedestrians.
impacts of distractions;smartphone distractions;pedestrians;risk of traffic accidents;cognitive psychology
- I. E. Hyman Jr, S. M. Boss, B. M. Wise, K. E. McKenzie and J. M. Caggiano, "Did you See the Unicycling Clown? Inattentional Blindness While Walking and Talking on a Cell Phone", Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 597-607, 2010.
- N. B. Neider, J. S. McCarley, J. A. Crowell, H. Kaczmarski and A. F. Kramer, "Pedestrians, Vehicles, and Cell Phones", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 42, No2, pp. 589-594, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.10.004
- J. Hatfield and S. Murphy, "The Effects of Mobile Phone use on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Signalised and unsignalised Intersections, Accident Analysis and Prevention 2007, Vol. 39, No.1, pp. 197-205, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2006.07.001
- Nasar et al., "Mobile Telephones, Distracted Attention, and Pedestrian Safety", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, No.1, pp 69-75, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2007.04.005
- D. C. Schwebel, D. Stavrinos, K. W. Byington, T. Davis, E. E. O'Neal and D. de Jong, "Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How talking on the Phone, Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street', Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 45, pp. 266-271, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.07.011
- L. L. Thompson, F. P. Rivara, R. C. Ayyagari and B. E. Ebel, "Impact of Social and Technological Distraction on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour: an Observational Study', Injury Prevention, Vol. 19, pp. 232-237, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040601
- Korea Transportation Safety Authority, Mileage Analysis of Research in 2012. 2013.
- The Road Traffic Authority in Korea, Children's Traffic Accidents Analysis in 2013, 2014.
- B. K. Barton, C. Kovesdi, N. D. Cottrell and T. Ulrich, "Developmental Differences in Auditory Detection and Localization of Aapproaching Vehicles, Unpublished Manuscript Under Review, 2011.
- L. Pfeffer and P. Barnecutt, "Children's Auditory Perception of Movement of Traffic Sounds, Child: Care, Health, and Development, Vol. 22, pp. 129-137, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1996.tb00780.x
- The Hyundai Maritime Climate and Environment Research Institute, National Traffic Safety Awareness Survey, 2016.
- Statistical Office, Internet and Dependency Survey Result of Smartphone in 2015, 2015.
- C. Collet, A. Guillot and C. Petit, "Phoning while Driving I: a Review of Epidemiological, Psychological, Behavioural and Physiological Studies, Ergonomics, Vol. 53, pp 589-601, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140131003672023
- C. Collet, A. Guillot and C. Petit, "Phoning while Driving II: a Review of Driving Conditions Influence, Ergonomics, Vol. 53, pp. 602-616, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140131003769092
- S. P. McEvoy, M. R. Stevenson, A. T. McCartt, M. Woodward, C. Haworth, P. Palamara and R. Cercarelli, "Role of Mobile Phones in Motor Vehicle Crashes Resulting in Hospital Attendance: a Case-crossover Study, Formerly the British Medical Journal, Vol. 331, pp. 428-432, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38537.397512.55
- F. A. Drews, H. Yazdani, G. N. Godfrey, J. Cooper and M.D.L. Strayer, "Text Messaging during Simulated Driving" Human Factors, Vol. 51, pp. 762-770, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720809353319
- S. G. Hosking, K. L. Young and M. A. Reegan, "The Effects of Text Messaging on Young Drivers", Human Factors, Vol. 51, pp. 582-592, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720809341575
- E. J. Walker, S. N. Lanthier, E. F. Risko and A. Kingstone, "The Effects of Personal Music Devices on Pedestrian Bhaviour', Safety Science, Vol. 50, pp. 123-128, 2011.
- D. B. Bellinger, B. M. Budde, M. Machida, G. B. Richardson and W. P. Berg, "The Effect of Cellular Telephone Conversation and Music Listening on Response Time in Braking, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, Vol. 12, pp. 441-451, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2009.08.007
- N. Dibben and V. J. Williamson, "An Exploratory Survey of in-vehicle Music Listening", Psychology of Music, Vol. 35, pp. 571-589, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735607079725
- B. Fraser, Pedestrians at Risk in Peru, The Lancet, Vol. 377, pp. 543-544, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60185-2
- M. Hijar, E. Vazquez-Vela and C. Arreola-Risa, Pedestrian traffic injuries in Mexico: a Country update. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, Vol .10, pp. 37-43, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1076/icsp.10.1.37.14108
Supported by : Traffic Science Institute, Korea Road Traffic Authority