Mechanical behavior of concrete comprising successively recycled concrete aggregates

  • Verma, Surender K. (Department of Civil Engineering, PEC University Technology) ;
  • Ashish, Deepankar K. (Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Maharaja Agrasen University)
  • Received : 2017.05.24
  • Accepted : 2017.06.25
  • Published : 2017.08.25


The concrete industry of developing countries like India consumes majority of natural resources. The increase in population has necessitated the construction of more and more structures. Further many structures have completed their life span or have undergone damages thus warranting the demolition of these structures. India produces approximately 23.75 million tons of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) annually. The natural resources are depleting at a higher rate with the increasing demand of concrete industry. This difficulty can be reduced with the use of RCA in land fill and concrete manufacturing. Use of RCA can provide cost savings and better energy utilization. This paper presents mechanical behavior of concrete comprising successively recycled concrete aggregate. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete get affected with number of recycling. In mix design successive recycled concrete aggregate (SRCA) was used in place of natural aggregates (NA) with 100% replacement. The test results of the compressive, flexural strength and pulse velocity were obtained for 14 and 28 days of curing age which showed significant improvement in results.


  1. Abdollahzadeh, G., Jahani, E. and Kashir, Z. (2016), "Predicting of compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete by genetic programming", Comput. Concrete, 18(2), 155-163.
  2. Arora, S. and Singh, S.P. (2016), "Analysis of flexural fatigue failure of concrete made with 100% coarse recycled concrete aggregates", Constr. Build. Mater., 102, 782-791.
  3. Ashish, D.K., Singh, B. and Singla, S. (2011), "Properties of fly ash bricks", Proceedings of the National Conference on Emerging Trends in Civil Engineering, Haryana, India, August.
  4. Ashish, D.K. and Saini, P. (2017), "Effect of successive recycled concrete aggregate on mechanical behavior and micro-structural characteristics of concrete", J. Build. Eng.
  5. Ashish, D.K., Singh, B. and Verma, S.K. (2016a), "The effect of attack of chloride and sulphate on ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete", Adv. Concrete Constr., 4(2), 101-121.
  6. Ashish, D.K., Verma, S.K., Kumar, R. and Sharma, N. (2016b), "Properties of concrete incorporating waste marble powder as partial substitute of cement and sand", Proceedings of the 2016 World Congress on the 2016 Structures Congress, Jeju Island, Korea, August-September.
  7. Ashish, D.K., Verma, S.K., Kumar, R. and Sharma, N. (2016c), "Properties of concrete incorporating sand and cement with waste marble powder", Adv. Concrete Constr., 4(2), 145-160.
  8. ASTM C597 (2016), Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
  9. Bairagi, N.K., Ravande, K. and Pareek, V.K. (1993), "Behaviour of concrete with different proportions of natural and recycled aggregates", Res. Conserv. Recycl., 9(1), 109-126.
  10. BIS: 2386-1 (1983), Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part-I Particle Size and Shape, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  11. BIS: 2386-2 (1963), Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part-II Estimation of Deleterious Materials and Organic Impurities, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  12. BIS: 2386-4 (1983), Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part-IV Mechanical Properties by Bureau of Indian Standards, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  13. BIS: 383 (1970), Indian Standard of Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  14. BIS: 516 (1959), Indian Standard Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  15. BIS: 8112 (2013), Specification for 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  16. Buck, A.D. (1976), "Recycled concrete as a source of aggregate", Proceedings of the Symposium on Energy and Resource Conservation in the Cement and Concrete Industry, CANMET.
  17. Casuccio, M., Torrijos, M.C., Giaccio, G. and Zerbino, R. (2008), "Failure mechanism of recycled aggregate concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 22(7), 1500-1506.
  18. Dar, A.R., Verma, S.K., Ashish, D.K. and Dar, M.A. (2015), "Investigation the properties of nonconventional bricks", J. Struct. Eng., 3(4), 26-35.
  19. Etxeberria, M., Vazquez, E., Mari, A. and Barra, M. (2007), "Influence of amount of recycled coarse aggregates and production process on properties of RAC", Cement Concrete Res., 37(5), 735-742.
  20. Ghosh, S., Ghosh, S. and Aich, A. (2011), "Rebuilding C&D waste recycling efforts in India", Waste Manage. World, 12(5).
  21. He, Z.J., Liu, G.W., Cao, W.L., Zhou C.Y. and Jia-Xing, Z. (2015), "Strength criterion of plain recycled aggregate concrete under biaxial compression", Comput. Concrete, 16(2), 209-222.
  22. Heeralal, M., Rathish, P.K. and Rao, Y.V. (2009), "Flexural fatigue characteristics of steel fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (SFRRAC)", Facta Univarsat. Series: Archit. Civil Eng., 7(1), 19-33.
  23. Hilsdorf, H.K. and Kesler, C.E. (1966), "Fatigue strength of concrete under varying flexural stresses", ACI J.(SP), 63(10), 1059-1076.
  24. Holmen, J.O. (1979), "Fatigue of concrete by constant and variable amplitude loading, the Norwegian institute of technology, the university of trondheim", Div. Concrete Struct., Bulletin No. 79-1.
  25. Kang, T.H.K., Kim, W., Kwak, Y.K. and Hong, S.G. (2012), "The choice of recycled concrete aggregates for flexural members", Proceedings of the 18th International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Congress on Innovative Infrastructures, Seoul, Korea.
  26. Kisku, N., Joshi, H., Ansari, M., Panda, S.K., Nayak, S. and Dutta, S.C. (2017), "A critical review and assessment for usage of recycled aggregate as sustainable construction material", Constr. Build. Mater., 131, 721-740.
  27. Kumar, G. and Ashish, D.K. (2015a), "Review on feasibility of bamboo in modern construction", J. Civ. Eng., EFES(2), 66-70.
  28. Kumar, G. and Ashish, D.K. (2015b), "Analyzing the feasibility and behaviour of bamboo reinforced wall panel in RC frame subjected to earthquake loading", Proceedings of the UKIERI Concrete Congress, Concrete Research Driving Profit and Sustainability, Jalandhar, India, November.
  29. Kumar, R. Patyal, V., Lallotra, B. and Ashish, D.K. (2014), "Study of properties of light weight fly ash brick", J. Eng. Res. App., ATE, 49-53.
  30. Kumar, R., Ashish, D.K. and Najia, L. (2015), "Properties of non-conventional (fly ash) brick: An experimental study", J. Eng. Trends Technol., 24(4), 198-204.
  31. Lin, Y.H., Tyan, Y.Y., Chang, T.P. and Chang, C.Y. (2004), "An assessment of optimal mixture for concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates", Cement Concrete Res., 34(8), 1373-1380.
  32. McNeil, K. and Kang, T.H.K. (2013), "Recycled concrete aggregates: A review", J. Concrete Struct. Mater., 7(1), 61-69.
  33. Oikonomou, N. (2005), "Recycled concrete aggregates", Cement Concrete Compos., 27, 315-318.
  34. Pham, T., Xiao, J. and Ding, T. (2015), "Simulation study on dynamic response of precast frames made of recycled aggregate concrete", Comput. Concrete, 16(4), 643-667.
  35. Poon, C.S., Shui, Z.H. and Lam, L. (2004), "Effect of microstructure of ITZ on compressive strength of concrete prepared with recycled aggregates", Constr. Build. Mater., 18(6), 461-468.
  36. Sahoo, K., Pathappilly, R.D. and Sarkar, P. (2016), "Behaviour of recycled coarse aggregate concrete: Age and successive recycling", J. Inst. Eng. (India): Ser. A, 97(2), 147-154.
  37. Saini, P. and Ashish, D.K. (2015), "Review on recycled concrete aggregates", SSRG Int. J. Civ. Eng., 71-75.
  38. Saravanakumar, P. and Dhinakaran, G. (2013), "Durability characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete", Struct. Eng. Mech., 47(5), 701-711.
  39. Shah, A., Jan, I.U., Khan, R.U. and Qazi, E.U. (2013), "Experimental investigation on the use of recycled aggregates in producing concrete", Struct. Eng. Mech., 47(4), 545-557.
  40. TMS150 Report (2001), Utilization of Waste from Construction Industry, Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi, India.
  41. Verian, K.P., Whiting, N.M., Olek, J., Jain, J. and Snyder, M.B. (2013), Using Recycled Concrete as Aggregate in Concrete Pavements to Reduce Materials Cost, Publication FHWA/IN/JTRP-2013/18, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
  42. Verma, S.K., Ashish, D.K., and Singh, J. (2016), "Performance of bricks and brick masonry prism made using coal fly ash and coal bottom", Adv. Concrete Constr., 4(4), 231-242.
  43. Wani, S.F, Ashish, D.K, Dar, M.A. and Kumar, R. (2015), "Study on mix design & hardened properties of self-compacting concrete", J. Civil, Struct. Environ. Infrastruct. Eng. Res. Develop., 5(4), 1-10.
  44. Watanabe, T., Nishibata, S., Hashimoto, C. and Ohtsu, M. (2007), "Compressive failure in concrete of recycled aggregate by acoustic emission", Constr. Build. Mater., 21(3), 470-476.
  45. Xiao, J., Li, J. and Zhang, C. (2005), "Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete under uniaxial loading", Cement Concrete Res., 35(6), 1187-1194.
  46. Yang, J., Du, Q. and Bao, Y. (2011), "Concrete with recycled concrete aggregate and crushed clay bricks", Constr. Build. Mater., 25(4), 1935-1945.
  47. Yaragal, S.C, Tejaa, D.C. and Shaffia, M. (2016), "Performance studies on concrete with recycled coarse aggregates", Adv. Concrete Constr., 4(4), 263-281.
  48. Zaharieva, R., Buyle-Bodin, F., Skoczylas, F. and Wirquin, E. (2003), "Assessment of the surface permeation properties of recycled aggregate concrete", Cement Concrete Compos., 25(2), 223-232.